Seeing the Light: a simple way to estimate
whether your timber stand is open enough for bobwhites
As biologists, foresters or other resource professionals, we tend to speak a language all our own. And it’s easy to forget most people we work with don’t speak that same language. I’m reminded of this every time I make a statement to a landowner like, “Your timber basal area is too high for quail. You have about 80 square feet of basal area per acre. With this age pine, you need that basal area down to about 40 to 50 square feet per acre to benefit quail.”
It took me a while to realize the blank stares I received back were not because of an overdose of cold medicine. In an
effort to make it simpler, I’d say something like, “Well, for trees of this age, a basal area of 40 to 50 square feet per acre would mean you would have about 50 to 60 trees per acre.” Huh? Thus, many a landowner has been forever lost to the babblings of a professional.
Let’s define basal area, then put it in context. Simply stated, basal area is the area in square feet of timber stumpage if you were to cut off every tree about 4 feet off the ground and measure the area of the stumps in square feet.
Envision a stand of older pine trees where each stump cut-off “at breast height” measured out at about 1 square foot of basal area. At this point in their growth, basal area and trees per acre would be exactly the same. To find the area of a circle, the equation A = π x R², or (R x R) where “R” equals the radius of the circle. If you do the math, what it boils down to is a tree that is about 13.5 inches in diameter produces 1 square foot of basal area. Let’s keep it simple and just say 14”. Thus if you had 60 trees of 14” diameter on an acre, you’d have about 60 square feet of basal area.
What a mess, eh? Clear as hot chocolate, right? My point, exactly.
But one thing should be obvious – it takes more trees per acre at smaller diameters to equal 1 square foot of basal area, and fewer larger trees. The good news is none of this math nonsense matters to a quail…what quail care about is how much sunlight reaches the forest floor at mid-day during summer. And it is not really the sunlight they care about. It is what the sunlight produces…more seed and insect-laden herbaceous growth down where they need it.
Let’s think about canopy closure, a concept I believe more people can relate to. Canopy closure ranges from 0% to 100%. A brand new cut-over has 0% canopy coverage. A triple canopy tropical rain forest has nearly 100% canopy coverage. So let’s forget about trees per acre and basal area and just keep it simple … think about sunlight reaching the forest floor. The general rule is this: “At mid-day during summer, when the sun is high in the sky, nearly directly overhead, a properly thinned stand of pines for quail will see about 60% – 65% sunlight on the forest floor at mid-day.” This translates roughly to 35% – 40% canopy coverage.
Simply put, when you stand under your thinned pine stand and look up, you should see a good bit more sky than tree crowns. This can be measured in many ways, one being with a densitometer. But understanding the concept is more important than taking exact measurements.
Most likely when you approach thinning your pines, you will work with a consulting forester. The forester will understand basal area and trees per acre. As the landowner, your job is to clearly state your goals to the forester. You need to make sure they understand you want to see your trees thinned a bit heavier than normal. The forester then translates your desires to the wood cutters.
Many cutters are accustomed to doing things a certain way. In order to communicate effectively how you want your trees thinned, it may be necessary to have a portion of the stand “marked.” The forester will use timber marking paint to mark “leave trees.” The cutter then harvests all but the un-marked trees. It costs money to have trees marked, but you do not have to have the entire stand done. For example, on our stand of loblolly pines, we had our forester mark five acres out of 65. These five acres gave the cutter a visual image of what we wanted and he took it from there. Our forester deducted the price of the marking out of our timber profits.
On most sites in Virginia loblolly pines are thinned first between the age of 15 and 20 years. We usually recommend that on a first thinning to simply go with the standard rate of thinning common in the area, or what your forester recommends. These younger trees are still relatively small in diameter and susceptible to wind and ice damage. But by the time they reach the age for a second thinning, 25 years or so, they can tolerate a real “quail thinning.” They can be managed from this point forward specifically for quail if that is your goal. While most loblolly pine stands are clear-cut for saw timber at around 35 years of age, there is no reason they cannot be managed much longer if the creation of pine savanna habitat is desired.
That’s enough for today. We’ll talk more next time about the economic pros and cons of longer term pine management, and we’ll throw in a discussion about prescribed fire to round out the discussion on what our friends at NBCI call “sunlight, fire and quail.”
Author’s note: This BLOG is dedicated to my Llewellin setter, Smudge, who drifted off into the shadows of a grouse-filled thicket in heaven last week. Until we meet again my friend.
What’s it take to be a “bird hunter?” I think some aspiring new hunters ask themselves this question and often give up before they get started. Many of today’s young hunters never grew up around bird hunting and their only vision of the sport is that portrayed in some of the high-brow magazines that talk more about fancy clothes, fine wines and crab dip, than bird hunting. But the bird hunters I grew up knowing might find it hard to stifle a snicker, or an outright laugh, at the tweed coated, 10 grand shotgun-toting, truffle-eating bird hunters pictured in some of today’s sporting ads.
Don’t get me wrong. I enjoy a snifter of top-shelf bourbon and a nice plate of smoked salmon from time to time, but I am equally at home with a cold beer and a cheeseburger. And if someone gave me a vintage Parker shotgun I’d have to mortgage my house to buy, I’d take it, but I find my 1974 Remington 1100 20-banger more than adequate (and it surely does not hurt as much to miss with an inexpensive gun).
Chances are you already own a shotgun worthy of bird hunting. So I call on all you oldtimers out there to lighten up, take a young hunter out on a “lowbrow” bird hunt sometime and let them know no matter how you dress it up, it is about fun and the relationship with a dog – whether the dog be from well-heeled national championship field trial stock or from unregistered “meat dog” lineage. And being a “sporting gentleman” has more to do with your demeanor than your clothing or number of digits in your salary.
Dogs ($250.00 to $1,500): Yes, you can spend a ton on a bird dog. And while sometimes you get what you pay for, it is no guarantee of success. There are many good dogs available for reasonable rates if you look. No longer is bird hunting strictly the realm of pointers, setters and Brittanys. Many breeds make fine bird dogs, German long and short haired pointers, Vizlas, and yes, pointing labs, along with many flushing breeds like Boykins and Springer Spaniels make loyal companions. It is possible to get a good dog for less than what most folks pay for one of the four TV sets in their home. In fact, many probably carry phones in their pockets that would easily have paid for a nice dog. My suggestion is to buy a puppy as young as you can find. It is most important that a dog bond with you. The more time you spend with the puppy, the more it will love you and be your dog. Most of us don’t hunt on horseback or off mule wagons, so a close working dog that checks back with you on its own is best.
Dog training (DIY DVDs out now – $50, unless you want to hire a professional): Some bird hunters are only happy with dogs that hold a point, hold steady to wing and shot (don’t run when the birds flush or shots ring out until released by the owner), retrieve and back well. I admire and respect this, but it is not necessary to enjoy bird hunting. If your dog will obey basic commands like “Whoa” and “Come here,” and will hold a point (if a pointing breed, or work close if a flushing dog) and back another dog’s point, a good time can be had.
Retrieving is something that comes natural to some dogs, but can be tough for others. My best dog would only retrieve if there was another dog present trying to get the bird. I have never owned a dog that was steady to wing and shot and I don’t ever plan to. Training a bird dog can be very stressful if you approach it like you have to get it all done today. But if you take the tactic of “one step at a time” you can learn to enjoy the training (and here is a hint, if you do not learn to enjoy it, you won’t be very good at it). In terms of training for dogs or people…it is always best to end on a high note and never leave the field “mad.” There are good books available on this subject – buy one.
Dog Training Aids ($200 – $800): There are some basic necessities like a check cord, a good whistle, a bell or beeper collar, and perhaps a blank, or starter pistol (a decent cap gun can work well). As time progresses you may require an electronic stimulation training collar. This can come in handy for safety when breaking a bird dog from running deer, which increases their risk of being hit crossing a road. At some point you may want to build a quail recall pen for housing pen-raised training quail. And you might also want an electronic bird launcher. But you do not have to have all this stuff at once.
Dog Boxes: I have seen dog boxes that would have been an improvement on places I have lived myself in my younger days. My dog rides up front with me…costs me nothing but the occasional electricity required to vacuum out the dog hair.
Places to hunt: A good friend of mine took the time one day and figured up all the public land within 2 hours of us here in central Virginia, almost 200,000 acres. Does it all have upland gamebirds…yes…just about all of it. These lands contain a lot of woodcock at times, a few quail and a few grouse, not to mention doves. Is it great hunting? Not by Texas standards. Can fun be had hunting birds on it? Yes! It requires an adjustment of what you might consider good hunting – does finding 5 to 10 woodcock in a day sound good? Does finding a covey or two of quail from time-to-time sound good? Many modern hunters have lost the fine art of “scouting,” which for me is half the fun, riding around during the off season and looking for new coverts, marking places on topo maps for future looksees – it is all part of an enjoyable process.
Hunting companions: I suggest you keep in mind hunting is supposed to be fun. Several of my hunting companions and I have remarked that the older we get the more we like to be around dogs and the less we like to be around people. I do know this… the older I get the more I like to be around people who are like my dogs…they don’t judge me, they accept my short-comings and are always happy to see me (of course they don’t have to jump up on me, or roll in deer poop to qualify). So stop talking about becoming a bird hunter. Take all that money you were going to spend on an exercise bike with a video of spandex-clad personal trainer barking at you, and invest it in a way to get the best exercise one can have, out in the fresh air with a good bird dog (P.S. – I average walking about 6 miles per bird hunt over rough terrain).
I hate answers that begin with “it depends.” That usually means you are about to be inundated with tons of detailed, probably useless information which ultimately ends up with no clear answer to your question.
So, is NatiVeg a helpful tool or just a curious tchotchke? As much as it pains me to say this, it depends. How are you going to use it and what do you expect to get out of it?
First, for those not familiar, NatiVeg is a mobile website (https://www.quailcount.org/NatiVeg) developed by NBCI to aid planners in selecting the correct native vegetation for their geographic location (limited to the 25 NBCI states) for their intended use. Released publically for comment on Nov. 16, 2016, NatiVeg can be used either as a desktop application or with a smartphone with GPS capability. An internet connection is required.
Many land planners dealing with working lands have limited knowledge of native vegetation, let alone its adaptability to a specific site or for specific purposes. NatiVeg was developed to provide planners with no or limited knowledge of native vegetation a tool for identifying native vegetation adapted to their selected location for their selected use. The target audience is persons providing technical assistance to landowners and/or landowners with the primary objective of incorporating native vegetation into their working lands.
NatiVeg uses Plant Hardiness Zones (PHZ) and Major Land Resource Areas (MLRA) as spatial components for search criteria of a database of Natural Resource Conservation Service Plant Material Center (NRCS-PMC) releases. NatiVeg returns a list of species known to be adapted to your selected geographic location. Herein lies the answer to the question of whether NatiVeg is helpful or a curious tchotchke.
Plant materials in the NRCS-PMC database have been through a process to document a variety of criteria, depending upon the intent of the release. In a majority of cases seed is commercially available or foundation seed is available for commercial increase, many of the releases have been planted in growing trials and their area of adaptation is documented, cultivars and selections have been made for desirable characteristics and there are some areas where local germplasm releases have been made with no selection criteria. (Both of those last two attributes are either good or bad depending upon your intended use and location) However, there are some limitations to the NRCS-PMC database; there are a limited number of releases (306 in the NBCI modified database) compared to a list of species that would have historically occurred for a location and there is skewed geographic distribution of native species releases, leaving limited choices for selected areas within the NBCI states.
MLRA’s are large geographic areas that are geographically associated land resource units based upon the dominant physical characteristics using physiology, geology, climate, water, soils, biological resources and land use, and they are thousands of acres in size. Obviously, there is variability within these areas, so though you may be in an MLRA where little bluestem is adapted, your specific location may be mesic or wet mesic and not suitable for little bluestem. For that reason, it is also important to consult the “Details” section of each species in NatiVeg to determine its appropriateness for the site. Information about collection location, comments or site adaptations can provide additional information to aid in decision making. If you still have questions or would like help there is a link to the state agency to help you find local assistance.
What about our non-target audience? Since the launch of NatiVeg I have received several comments from ecologists wishing the application were more specific in relation to local ecosystems and vegetation communities. Fair comments, though those changes wouldn’t particularly serve our target audience any better. Remember a few lines above where I was listing the attributes of using the NRCS-PMC database; “There are some areas where local germplasm releases have been made with no selection criteria?” In some areas within the NBCI states there have been ecotype collections made and seed increases done. South Texas and Iowa/Missouri are two examples. Ecologists working in those regions will find plant materials suitable for restorations. Unfortunately, there is limited species availability and our database returns still don’t give a “big picture” list of species endemic to the location.
We are working on ideas to address this and determine if we even need to. It appears, based upon feedback, there is some need/desire for this type of product. At this point we don’t know if we will develop an entirely new product or work to expand NatiVeg, but we are examining options using NatureServe data or NRCS Ecological Site Description data. There may be others and we’ll examine all options.
Knowing some of the limitations of the database and spatial criteria, and understanding how to use additional resources to deal with those limitations, NatiVeg should be a helpful tool for our target audience … and in some instances our non-target audience. If you’re expecting a list of species endemic to your local ecosystem, then NatiVeg is probably a curious tchotchke.
To answer the question,” Is NatiVeg a helpful tool or curious tchotchke?” It depends.
Joseph Roswell Evans, co-founder of Quail Unlimited, died December 9, 2016 at 66 years old in Augusta, Georgia. Much better known as “Rocky,” he and Jerry Allen launched the nation’s first national quail conservation organization in 1981 in Edgefield, South Carolina. Rocky served as its executive vice president, face and fervent voice for 28 years until his retirement in 2009.
Prior to 1981, Oklahoma State University had convened two periodic quail research symposia to share and publicize scientific findings. But QU was the first national force for quail conservation that brought the plight of declining bobwhites and other quail to the attention of tens of thousands of hunters, biologists and agencies across the country. QU also was the first to undertake the task of trying to do something about quail declines at a large scale by raising sportsmen’s dollars to hire a national network of professional biologists who worked with local chapters, state and federal agencies, and researchers. Those biologists collectively became one of QU’s most valuable and enduring contributions. The annual QU conventions provided a forum for hundreds of sportsmen and chapter leaders at local and state levels to interact with agency biologists, quail researchers, outdoor writers and others.
The rest of the bobwhite conservation world caught up in 1995 with the formation of the Southeast Quail Study Group and completion of the National Bobwhite Conservation Initiative in 2002. Those developments added state wildlife agency authority, a stronger technical foundation, long-range bobwhite conservation vision, and large-scale strategy to bolster the grassroots work begun by QU. This strategic organization enabled mutual support and collaboration among QU and its sportsmen, state wildlife agencies, quail researchers, and other conservationists at a national scale.
That opportunity for mutual support culminated at a pivotal moment in 2006, when Rocky and QU stepped up to pledge critical three-year financial support for the NBCI. “Quail Unlimited is proud to be a partner … in meeting the financial demands necessary to help ensure the long-term success and viability of the NBCI. Our whole organization including our staff, chapters and members strongly endorse and support the NBCI goals,” Rocky said at the time. That timely contribution by QU solved a crucial funding problem and enabled the NBCI to blossom, to better serve the nation’s entire bobwhite community in the long run. Unfortunately, the QU national organization did not fare as well, peaking too soon under the weight of a complex web of leadership and management challenges. Three years later, Rocky retired amid controversial circumstances and imminent bankruptcy of the organization.
Upon reflection benefitting from the passage of time, it becomes clearer that Rocky’s aspiration for a broad, cohesive movement for quail conservation was 20 years ahead of its time. When the states and the rest of the quail conservation world began standing up, QU was already trapped in a declining trajectory, unable to capitalize on the new national attention and synergy. The state of bobwhite conservation might now be brighter if the timing of the two trajectories has been better aligned. But a piece of Rocky Evans’ bobwhite conservation legacy lives on in the NBCI, as the next generation endeavors to build on what he and QU set in motion.
They say a picture is worth 1,000 words…but I think what they are really worth is 1,000 memories. These days they’ve gotten so easy to come by. The digital world has improved some things, but I still miss the feeling I had back when I turned in a roll of Kodachrome and went to see them “again for the first time.” The end of the year is a time for reflection, and I am actually writing this on December 30th, 2016.
The office is quiet today and I am able to look around my small portion of it at some of the photos that clutter my wall. I had a fellow tell me one time, “Wow your office is like a monument to you.” I don’t think he meant to insult me, and if he had looked closely he would have seen all the other people and pets in those photos. I did not bother to try to explain to him that these photos are like my “Linus blanket.” These office walls and this job can close in sometimes and it is hard to explain the suffocating feeling I get from time to time when I feel like all I can do is never going to be enough. So I surround myself with people and places that take me to someplace warm.
I see friends when we were young. Like that time we went to Santee-Cooper South Carolina and caught enough catfish to fill two big coolers with fillets. One night we fished through a violent thunderstorm. Those were the “bullet proof” days. We were fishing two poles each until the storm hit and as the rain pelted the water, the fish began to hit so fast we had to reel in one pole and focus on one. We caught them up to 40lbs. The next day we took these pics, hauling them in a wheelbarrow to the cleaning table.
I see a picture of me and a friend back in 1983 on a rabbit hunt while I was home on leave from the service. I am holding a rabbit and I’m wearing a pair of blue coveralls my Mom gave me for Christmas and a white toboggan – back before blaze orange became mandatory. Yes, luck sure plays a role in our continued existence sometimes.
And there is a photo of most of the core members of the 5 Bs Hunt Club posing in front of our deer hanging tree with 7 deer in the background and all of us striking a pose like we had just conquered Normandy. Of the six of us in that picture, two have now gone on to hunting grounds in the sky and our club as a whole has seen seven members pass on since its heyday. We visited the old cabin this November on the anniversary of one of those lost. The old Catalpa tree that hung our deer had also succumbed to time. But those memories hung on the fall air like wood smoke and, if you listened real close, you could hear feet falling on the old cabin floor.
I see a photo of an Oregon license plate from 1994. It was the year a good friend and I cut two weeks of grad school classes to fly to Oregon and hunt for 13 days. I killed a grand total of 13 game birds on that trip – one for each day, I spent a thousand dollars I did not have and probably sunk my chances of graduating with honors, but one thing I did not do was acquire any regrets. I don’t remember a single thing from any of the classes I cut, but the memories of that trip are a wonderful tattoo on my mind. In one photo the mountains slant to the right, the hunter stands straight with his gun slanting upward, and the clouds in the sky slant to the left, and it tells the story of that land of angles. The only flat place in that country is the bottom of a well. Like the author Cormac McCarthy said “It’s no country for old men.”
There’s a picture of when I first started working for this outfit. One of my co-workers and me posing with two nice jakes during spring gobbler season. We got ribbed pretty hard for killing jakes, but we didn’t care. I have hunted turkeys all over, and I have been defeated by wary old long beards way more often than I have won, but those two jakes…what a hunt. Long story short, my friend taught me a lesson about teamwork that spring. We hunted as a team and in this case we had been after these birds for a couple days, we had a decoy set-up and we sat about 2 yards apart with our backs to a downed stump ball. Over the hill they came running to the decoy, both like high school boys at their first dance. Our shots rang as one sound and the two birds dropped within feet of the decoy. I have never been more proud of a turkey.
There’s one of my wife before we were married. She was learning to fly-fish, but this day we used fly-rods and bait to fish for stocked brook trout on the South Fork of the Piney River in Amherst County. Of course, I was trying to impress her with my skills and she caught the biggest brook trout to date either of us has ever caught. Life gets crazy and we don’t fish together much anymore. It seems to me relationships have a way of going around some bends, but then coming back someday. Her smile that day raised the temperature along that chilly creek by 10 degrees.
One is a classic “tailgate” shot of bird hunters after a day afield. Some kind friends took me to a preserve one day. There’s Raymond, Bill, John and “Grunt”, Raymond’s son who was about seven at the time. He is well into his twenties now. And in front of them is Shell, grungy as usual, her woolly fur holding every bur, twig and clod of dirt she rubbed up against. And she is looking up at the hunters, tired but not out, and seeming to say “You done good.”
I could keep on for many more hours talking about these memories. I hope you have many of your own. I hope every day you wake up you say to yourself, “Let’s go make some more.” The last one I’ll mention today is of my daughter and me at a fee trout pond in Nelson County. When she was young I took her to a place I knew she could have success. The trout were expensive, but she didn’t know that. She had a ball. But what I remember most when I look at this picture is not that day itself, but a day a couple years later when I asked her, “Do you want to go back to the trout pond, or do you want to try fishing for them in the river?” She said “Daddy, I think I’d like to earn my trout, let’s fish in the river.” I think I’ll sit here and look at these pictures a while more…and just keep the thoughts for myself.