The Farm Service Agency (FSA), which administers the Conservation Reserve Program (CRP), announced in December the availability of $10 million dollars to provide financial incentive to eligible CRP participants to promote pine savanna habitat or other beneficial wildlife practices such as tree thinning and prescribed burning. These management tools are critical for restoring and creating diverse and healthy savanna ecosystems, and will help address the habitat needs for threatened and endangered species, candidate species, northern bobwhite and other grassland and early successional birds, state species of greatest conservation need, pollinators, and others.
FSA is taking requests from landowners and will close out the second batching period today, Wednesday, May 31. Although today is the deadline for the current batching period, landowners should have ample opportunity to take advantage of this incentive. FSA is expected to take requests for this incentive until all the funding has been utilized. If you are a landowner that is enrolled in CRP with tree practices and you are interested in improving habitat for bobwhites, bees, butterflies, other pollinators, deer, turkey, certain songbirds and other wildlife you should consider visiting your local FSA office (http://offices.sc.egov.usda.gov/locator/).
If a landowner chooses to prescribe burn and thin their CRP trees they could receive up to $150.00/acre. Prescribed burning alone or thinning alone means that the landowner would receive a lower incentive payment. Before landowners can be paid for this work, they need to insure that they have a current conservation plan or schedule of operation with these practices included in them.
To maintain savanna/bobwhite habitat, both the thinning and burning practices should be included in a landowners habitat management practices plan. Thinning without prescribed burning or prescribed burning without thinning will not maintain the habitat in the proper scale. (To maintain bobwhite habitat it is recommended to thin down to a density of 40 – 50 sq. ft. of basal area in pine stands and to a density of 20-30 sq. ft. of basal area for hardwood stands. In southern pine stands prescribed burning should occur on a 2-3 year rotation. If there a 2-year rough and it will carry a fire then a prescribed burn should be conducted. For hardwood woodlands, prescribed burning should occur every 2-6 years.)
I am sure you’ve all heard the old saying “Taking the sting out of it.” Something said like this “Man, the post-game picnic sure took the sting out of losing by eight runs.” I guess only a rare few people out there cherish being stung, literally or figuratively. So why would I write “Putting the sting in quail management?”
I was invited to give a talk this summer to the annual meeting of the Virginia State Beekeepers Association. Over two hundred people generally attend this meeting! Wow! And take a look at this link to see how many bee keeping chapters there are https://www.virginiabeekeepers.org/local-groups/local-groups-map . Many years ago, quite a few of us in the quail world began to see parallels between pollinating insect habitat and quail habitat; and, for over 8 years I have been giving a presentation titled “The Bobwhites and the Bees.” I am honored to “bee” speaking to the bee people!
The world of honey bees is fascinating. I know enough to get “stung” trying to talk about them, but while sharing programs with several superb bee keepers, I picked up a few things. Did you know that one out of every three bites of food is attributed to being visited by pollinators like bees, butterflies, birds and other animals?
Recently I watched a gray squirrel go through a tulip poplar, limb by limb, poking his nose into every flower – never thought of squirrels as pollinators, huh? The truth is animals pollinate about 85% of plant species worldwide. And pollinating insects are in decline. European honeybees help offset the decline in native pollinators and many growers of produce and fruit rely on them to meet the demand of consumers. But there are over 4,000 native bee species in North America and more 500 species of butterflies. So why do we rely on honey bees so much?
The habitat for all these species, like the habitat for bobwhite quail, has declined markedly. And I am sure you have all heard of honey bee “colony collapse disorder.” Declining habitat may not be the only cause of the declines in these species, but it is a major factor.
One thing I learned while listening to the North Carolina apiarist give a talk last summer is that honeybee keepers often have to feed their bees. There was a lot of talk about what types of feeds were best, and when feeding was necessary. That struck me as odd. I wondered to myself, “Was there not a day when bees could feed themselves year around?” To enhance quail conservation efforts in some areas, quail, too, are sometimes being supplementally fed. This suggests that modern ecosystems cannot naturally meet the food demands of many organisms. As a kid in the 1960s, I remember bumble bees being everywhere and wild hives of honey bees were common. Just as common was the whistle of the bobwhite. It simply seemed like the land bore more “fruit” then than it does now.
The overlap between quail habitat and that for pollinators is striking. I now judge the quality of quail habit during summer based on the number of bees I hear buzzing or butterflies I see nectaring as I walk through it. Many fantastic quail plants are equally great for bees. For example, the black and gold bumble-bee (Bombus auricomus) visits bee balms and night shades, which provide insects and good brood-rearing habitat structure for quail chicks. Partridge pea (Chameacrista fasciculata), a common native legume cherished by bees, is a key larval host for several butterfly species (like the Cloudless Sulphur, the Sleepy Orange and the Little Yellow) and makes great brood-rearing cover for bobwhites. And all you need to do in the month of May is walk by blooming blackberry thickets to know that this escape cover for quail is frequently visited by bees and insects of many varieties (not to mention quail relish eating the ripe berries).
Perhaps the most notable bee in decline is the Rusty-patched bumble bee (Bombus affinis), which was recently listed as endangered by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. Its populations have declined by over 80% and it is only found in small portions of its native range. It nests in the ground and has an affinity for native sunflowers and golden-rods (Solidago sp.), two plant types that provide good habitat structure for quail, are rich with insects and covered with butterflies during fall.
And did I say “nest in the ground?” Yep. Though quail nest on, not in, the ground they do need bare dirt under their feet to prosper. This does not mean open exposed bare ground. It means some open-ness and bare dirt under a canopy of herbaceous vegetation. Aha! The same is true for many of our native bees. In addition to bumble-bees that nest in the ground, there are many species of digger bees that need access to bare ground for nesting. Those of you who garden know the ones I’m talking about. They can be very numerous around your garden in spring and at first may alarm you, but they almost never sting. They love to nest in the bare ground of a garden and while there they help pollinate your vegetables.
Here are some plants that really benefit bees and other pollinators: giant yellow-hyssop, swamp milkweed, butterfly weed, spotted Joe Pye weed, flat-topped goldenrod, St. John’s wort, blue lobelia, stiff goldenrod, hairy beardtongue, narrow-leaf mountain mint, black-eyed Susan, green-headed coneflower, rough-leaf goldenrod, white heath aster, blue vervain, New York ironweed, Culver’s root, partridge pea, sumac, desmodiums (beggar-weeds or tick trefoils), sunflowers, and many more. If everyone interested in bees, butterflies, and bobwhites would learn to love and manage for weeds, wildflowers and thickets, collectively we could all “put the sting” back into our environment, and in so doing put the life back into it. Call us if interested in learning how … 434-392-8328.
Sources of information for this BLOG:
Virginia Working Landscapes (a branch of the Smithsonian Conservation Biology Institute) – www.VAWorkingLandscapes.org
The Xerces Society – www.xerces.org
The Virginia Native Plant Society – www.vnps.org
It’s been a while since I’ve posted to the blog. Part of the reason for that is one of the topics I am covering in this post. I apologize for being so long between posts.
Make Safety a Priority
This is off topic for a grassland blog … but not entirely. However, I think it is an important message to share. When I was working as a conservation contractor, felling trees, for one reason or another, was part of that work. As a result, I established a policy related to using chainsaws. There were three simple rules: 1) always wear saw chaps; 2) if felling trees, always wear a helmet; and 3) if felling trees over 8” dbh, always have another person present.
Earlier this year I was taking out some frustration on some trees (that’s how grassland people release frustration, that or burn something) when a 20” dbh tree I was felling started to lean one direction then took an unexpected change in direction, falling back towards me. I ran, but was unable to get out of the way before it came down on top of my head. I suffered a severe concussion along with some nerve and muscular injury to my neck and back. Had it not been for rule #2 and #3, rules I still follow though not doing contracting work any longer, it is likely I would not be writing this blog.
The message I want to share: always wear your safety gear. If you don’t have it, buy it. It’s a cheap investment. In this case, the quick action of the person that was with me and a $75 helmet, I’m convinced, saved my life.
A Culture of Prescribed Fire
One of the projects I’ve been working on is a video on prescribed fire for cattle production in rangeland. Recently I was in Kansas shooting video, upon completing shooting for the day I headed from Kingman, KS to Medicine Lodge. At one point during the drive I could see no less than a dozen smoke plumes rising into the sky. In any other part of the county there would be general alarm at such a site, but in some parts of Kansas during the spring it’s part of everyday life, the people are accustomed to it. Though seeing a dozen smoke plumes was significant enough, it wasn’t nearly as significant as where it was. Last year, the Anderson Creek wildfire, which gained the dubious distinction of being the largest wildfire in Kansas history (312,427 acres) occurred just south and west of the town of Medicine Lodge in Barber County, KS (and other counties). This year, just 30 miles west of the area impacted by the Anderson Creek wildfire, the Starbuck wildfire in Clark and surrounding counties eclipsed the previous year’s record fire consuming 502,000 acres. You would think that following two consecutive years of record breaking wildfires, ranchers and citizens would be leery of fire, but not so. The locals have learned, many passed down through generations, that fire is good for rangeland; in that part of the country ranching is the primary industry and the economy is based on the productivity of the rangeland.
I certainly don’t mean to minimize the effect of wildfires on the ranchers and homeowners who were directly affected. Losing their homes, cattle and miles upon miles of fence will certainly have its financial and emotional impact, my thoughts and prayers go out to them, as well as my respect and admiration of what they are enduring. But if there is any silver lining in the tragedy at all, it is the fact that the rangeland will be more productive, which will translate to better cattle performance and hopefully better returns at the sale barn.
Driving back to Missouri through Kansas took me through the southern Flint Hills. Arguably, the Flint Hills are the longest, most continuously burned landscape in the US and world. Indigenous people burned this landscape to facilitate bison hunting and that legacy has continued ever since as free roaming bison herds transitioned to domestic cattle production. Burning the Flint Hills is an annual ritual and part of the culture. If you live in or around the Flint Hills, you expect a good portion of them to burn each year. In some cases, too much burns; to the detriment of wildlife through the destruction of cover over a wide range, sometimes thousands of acres in one block. But given the choice of burning or not, in this landscape, burning is better.
Writing for some of us who are not gifted speakers, or ad libbers, is a way to communicate and convey our ideas and emotions. But it seems more and more if words are not written in short bursts of text, or attached to a meme, people don’t seem to have time for them these days. Thus, here is a BLOG that is mainly photos.
Seeing the Light: a simple way to estimate
whether your timber stand is open enough for bobwhites
As biologists, foresters or other resource professionals, we tend to speak a language all our own. And it’s easy to forget most people we work with don’t speak that same language. I’m reminded of this every time I make a statement to a landowner like, “Your timber basal area is too high for quail. You have about 80 square feet of basal area per acre. With this age pine, you need that basal area down to about 40 to 50 square feet per acre to benefit quail.”
It took me a while to realize the blank stares I received back were not because of an overdose of cold medicine. In an
effort to make it simpler, I’d say something like, “Well, for trees of this age, a basal area of 40 to 50 square feet per acre would mean you would have about 50 to 60 trees per acre.” Huh? Thus, many a landowner has been forever lost to the babblings of a professional.
Let’s define basal area, then put it in context. Simply stated, basal area is the area in square feet of timber stumpage if you were to cut off every tree about 4 feet off the ground and measure the area of the stumps in square feet.
Envision a stand of older pine trees where each stump cut-off “at breast height” measured out at about 1 square foot of basal area. At this point in their growth, basal area and trees per acre would be exactly the same. To find the area of a circle, the equation A = π x R², or (R x R) where “R” equals the radius of the circle. If you do the math, what it boils down to is a tree that is about 13.5 inches in diameter produces 1 square foot of basal area. Let’s keep it simple and just say 14”. Thus if you had 60 trees of 14” diameter on an acre, you’d have about 60 square feet of basal area.
What a mess, eh? Clear as hot chocolate, right? My point, exactly.
But one thing should be obvious – it takes more trees per acre at smaller diameters to equal 1 square foot of basal area, and fewer larger trees. The good news is none of this math nonsense matters to a quail…what quail care about is how much sunlight reaches the forest floor at mid-day during summer. And it is not really the sunlight they care about. It is what the sunlight produces…more seed and insect-laden herbaceous growth down where they need it.
Let’s think about canopy closure, a concept I believe more people can relate to. Canopy closure ranges from 0% to 100%. A brand new cut-over has 0% canopy coverage. A triple canopy tropical rain forest has nearly 100% canopy coverage. So let’s forget about trees per acre and basal area and just keep it simple … think about sunlight reaching the forest floor. The general rule is this: “At mid-day during summer, when the sun is high in the sky, nearly directly overhead, a properly thinned stand of pines for quail will see about 60% – 65% sunlight on the forest floor at mid-day.” This translates roughly to 35% – 40% canopy coverage.
Simply put, when you stand under your thinned pine stand and look up, you should see a good bit more sky than tree crowns. This can be measured in many ways, one being with a densitometer. But understanding the concept is more important than taking exact measurements.
Most likely when you approach thinning your pines, you will work with a consulting forester. The forester will understand basal area and trees per acre. As the landowner, your job is to clearly state your goals to the forester. You need to make sure they understand you want to see your trees thinned a bit heavier than normal. The forester then translates your desires to the wood cutters.
Many cutters are accustomed to doing things a certain way. In order to communicate effectively how you want your trees thinned, it may be necessary to have a portion of the stand “marked.” The forester will use timber marking paint to mark “leave trees.” The cutter then harvests all but the un-marked trees. It costs money to have trees marked, but you do not have to have the entire stand done. For example, on our stand of loblolly pines, we had our forester mark five acres out of 65. These five acres gave the cutter a visual image of what we wanted and he took it from there. Our forester deducted the price of the marking out of our timber profits.
On most sites in Virginia loblolly pines are thinned first between the age of 15 and 20 years. We usually recommend that on a first thinning to simply go with the standard rate of thinning common in the area, or what your forester recommends. These younger trees are still relatively small in diameter and susceptible to wind and ice damage. But by the time they reach the age for a second thinning, 25 years or so, they can tolerate a real “quail thinning.” They can be managed from this point forward specifically for quail if that is your goal. While most loblolly pine stands are clear-cut for saw timber at around 35 years of age, there is no reason they cannot be managed much longer if the creation of pine savanna habitat is desired.
That’s enough for today. We’ll talk more next time about the economic pros and cons of longer term pine management, and we’ll throw in a discussion about prescribed fire to round out the discussion on what our friends at NBCI call “sunlight, fire and quail.”