I was talking with a colleague this morning discussing youth hunter recruitment and how difficult it is given all the things kids and their parents are now involved in. Just to get a commitment for a one day hunt, or even part of a day, is difficult. Where does that hunting spark come from? What makes a kid burn with desire to go afield? I know when I was a kid some of my earliest memories were of my dad returning home with game. I can still vividly picture a big greenhead mallard he pressed into the window of our front door, when I was four or five, as I gazed at it in awe. But it was more than that, and exactly what I am not sure.
Regardless whether your kid ever hunts or fishes, I hope you somehow manage to kindle their interest in the outdoors. Without that basic curiosity towards nature, there is little likelihood a child will ever grow into a conservationist. I hope you help your kid find a way to rediscover discovery. You just might have fun yourself.
My daughter and I have worked together on her school science project now for the past 3 years. As we scanned the internet looking at page after page of age appropriate science projects for this year’s assignment, nothing really spoke to us. Last year we did the “floating egg” experiment, where we tested the buoyancy of water. As we added salt, low-and-behold the egg that sank in freshwater now floated. Her thoughts may have been, “OK Dad, my choices for fun are, play cool video games, or watch an egg float in water.” One of the biggest challenges any parent faces is how to make things productive, but also fun.
I gave up on the internet projects this year. I put my own meager brain to use. What might be easy, involve nature and be fun? “What do you think about testing to see which seeds in a bag of store bought bird food the birds actually prefer?” I asked Grace. She thought it was “cool.” Most store bought bird seed is comprised of millet, milo, sunflower and cracked corn. Some contain wheat, barley, or a few other seeds, but your standard bag of bird seed is not a sack of gourmet bird food.
Daddy’s bright idea was to get a sifter and separate the seeds…which did not work at all, and we had a ton of fun laughing at my stupidity. I ended up buying the four basic seed types separately. We then had a great time building a 4-chambered tray to put the different seeds in. Nothing hi-tech, we use plywood and some 1’ x 2” stripping pine to make our testing device.
My daughter, wife and daughter’s science teacher all had worries about “how will you know whether squirrels ate the seed? How will you control for seed being blown out by wind? Will you weigh the seed each morning and evening, etc.?” I explained to them all – this is an observational experiment. It will require Grace to sit and watch the birds feed during peak feeding times and record what seed they choose. Thus Daddy is not as stupid as many would like to believe (though my life does have a Forrest Gump quality).
I actively involved my daughter in observing birds. At the same time I eliminated all the potential biases associated with a non-observational experiment. If a squirrel comes along, we’ll shoo him away. And we won’t worry about times, if Grace watches for 10, 20 or 30 minutes over several days – it does not matter because in the end we will have the total number of each variety of seed chosen by type of bird, and collectively.
Some of our results: sunflower was chosen 286 times, millet 26 times, milo 23 times and cracked corn 27 times. The most common choosers of sunflower were the tufted titmouse and the chickadee. We can unequivocally say tufted titmice and chickadees prefer sunflower. Juncos fed on the ground almost exclusively and visited the tray only 2 or 3 times. Doves also fed exclusively on the ground. Cardinals preferred to feed from our bird feeder which was close by, but began to visit the tray once they got used to it. The towhees were the last to show up. They only began using the feed we put out after it snowed. We also found that Cardinals eat sunflower seed by taking the entire seed inside their bill, then spitting out the hulls, but the chickadees and titmice have to grasp the sunflower with their feet and peck out the seed inside. Thus cardinals can eat sunflower a lot faster than other birds. Interesting also was that blue jays, while a large bird, do not have a beak adapted to take in the seed like a cardinal. They, too, had to hold the sunflower seeds and peck them open. The chickadees would pick the seed up and fly to a nearby tree to eat it. The titmice would as often as not, simply peck it open right on the edge of the tray - all this from one simple experiment.
Seed for further study…we wondered how far away birds would come to a feeder? We observed them flying in from a distance of well over a hundred yards. Maybe this study has been done? Regardless, I hope I sparked in my daughter the seeds of a conservationist. Today, songbirds, tomorrow, who knows? But it has to start somewhere.
There is a primordial link that modern humans cannot escape when we stand near the ocean and look at its vastness and taste the salty sea breezes. Likewise, I feel that same connection when sitting near a campfire. There's just something about fire and smoke ... and the visions and memories they evoke. Transcending time, apparitions of faces, echoes of voices telling stories all rise like the smoke, then waft away quickly on the evening breeze. I can see friends in the flames appearing as they looked 25 years ago.
I built a nice big fire ring in the northern portion of my backyard out of “found” rocks. I don’t have to camp to have a fire now. I feel no guilt in burning wood I cut with my own hands from time-to-time for the sheer joy of it. As I sat by the fire a few nights back, I watched the small pile of wood I brought up from the barn disappear rapidly. The colder it got the more I poured on the red oak. Within three hours what I thought would have lasted most of the night was nearly gone (and so was the drink I sipped on).
Much as I try to forget work on weekends, a bobwhite quail flew up out of the fire and into my thoughts. In the east, the father of modern quail management Herbert Stoddard called the bobwhite the “fire bird” in his classic “The Bobwhite Quail: Its Habits, Preservation and Increase” back in the late 1920s. It has been postulated to me by several biologists over the past year that perhaps we were working very hard to restore bobwhite quail to a landscape where they were never abundant pre-European settlement. After all, the tendency in the east for land left to its own devices is to become mature forest.
I agreed to a point with these colleagues, but as I sat by my fire I imagined Native American villages, perhaps consisting of dozens, sometimes hundreds and occasionally maybe thousands of humans living in one area and depending on the resources in their immediate surroundings. Those people not only needed fire to stay warm in winter, they used fire to cook with routinely, daily almost. Fire was also used in canoe making, land clearing, preparing land for farming and promoting ample game populations. When I looked at how much wood I had used to stay moderately warm for a few hours it struck me that Native Americans must have used vast quantities of wood in the areas in which they lived. And fire must have been as common a daily tool for them as a microwave oven is to us.
I further imagined their imprint on the landscape. It was not benign. As they exhausted resources in one area over a period of years, they were likely forced to move to new areas and begin the process again. I am not an archaeologist, but I have read quite a bit about this, and what I am describing is well documented in various places. The notion that there was an unbroken, mature forest from the Atlantic Ocean to the Mississippi River is somewhat misleading. And, while I believe quail populations peaked in our state shortly after the Civil War, I do believe they were abundant well before that. When you add to the Native American use of fire, lightning struck fire, and also toss in large grazing animals like elk and buffalo, I believe early-succession habitats were common.
Tying this back to my title, beyond the bonfire ring, I imagine a ring of fires influence across wide areas of our eastern landscape. Early-successional habitats were perhaps not as evident here as they would have been in our mid-western prairies, or in the Texas scrublands, but they were critical components of our eastern ecosystems. Vast acreages of fire-dependent long-leaf pine existed with significant acres occurring in Virginia. Piedmont prairies, and open mixed short-leaf pine and oak woodlands were common throughout central Virginia. Large open lands occurred west of the Blue Ridge in extensive, fertile valleys and on mountain “balds” maintained by lightning struck fire and grazing. And southwestern facing mountain ridges burned frequently, keeping them in a successional sere dominated by open stands of fire adapted pine. These habitats were important then and they are important now. Until Virginia’s landowners, public and private, learn to recognize, appreciate and manage these sometimes “scruffy” looking habitats, our state’s biodiversity will continue to decline.
However, there is good news. A culture of prescribed burning for ecosystem management is beginning to emerge again among many agencies and among several non-governmental organizations in our state. This has not occurred by accident. Many dedicated professionals in both the public and private sector have worked hard to reignite (don’t groan out loud or roll your eyes) and fan the flames of interest in prescribed fire. So next time you see smoke in the air, don’t assume the worst. There is still a place on Virginia’s landscape for properly applied fire and the habitats it produces.
By Justin Folks
Private Lands Biologist
Virginia Quail Recovery Initiative
Field of Dreams is a fantastic movie, and one of my all-time favorites. Perhaps the most memorable line from the movie comes from “the voice” that speaks to Kevin Costner’s character, Ray Kinsella, throughout the film: “if you build it, he will come.” We find out toward the end of the movie that the “it” the voice refers to is a baseball field and the “he” is John Kinsella, Ray’s father who passed away years ago. After being jeered by everyone for plowing under his corn and constructing a full-sized diamond, the ghost of Ray’s father eventually emerges from the surrounding corn (where “Shoeless” Joe Jackson and other greats of the time also appeared beforehand) and they have a game of catch. Obviously, not a work of non-fiction.
Our Quail Team hears a similar voice. It is a FACT that the underlying cause of the plight of the bobwhite is habitat loss and habitat fragmentation. By adhering to the “if you build it, they will come” philosophy, we aim to stitch together patches of quail habitat and recover this once-familiar Prince of Gamebirds to sustainable population levels. Do we expect these ghostly birds to just appear out of the woods like “Shoeless” Joe Jackson? Is our approach as far-fetched as Ray Kinsella’s? I submit that it is not.
Bill Fletcher, a resident of Rappahannock County, has been working with the Virginia Quail Team for the last 3 years to create quail habitat on his property. Bobwhites have not been observed there in 5 years or so, but Mr. Fletcher aimed to change that. Mr. Fletcher has completed 2 large habitat projects in which he has converted marginal crop land, hay land, and pasture land to suitable quail cover. While establishing quail cover may be hard work, the hardest part is perhaps the waiting game afterward. Will they come, or won’t they?
One of the most beautiful things about “quail habitat” is that the plant community and vegetation structure necessary for quail provides food, cover, and shelter for many other wildlife species—songbirds, rabbits, pollinating insects, deer, and turkeys to name a few. There aren’t many who appreciate these “fringe benefits” more than the folks with Virginia Working Landscapes (VWL) out of the Smithsonian Conservation Biology Institute, who have been conducting research on maximizing wildlife benefit while maintaining sustainable agriculture. Amy Johnson, one of VWL’s principal investigators, has been conducting summer and winter bird surveys at Mr. Fletcher’s property for the past couple of years. Without spitting out a bunch of data, I can tell you that the number of bird species and total number of birds using the “quail habitat” areas compared to the adjacent fescue fields and crop fields is staggering, especially in winter. There ARE immediate benefits to “quail work,” even if quail may not appear for some time.
When we began working together, Mr. Fletcher told us that he had seen or heard a few bobwhites here and there up until about 5 years ago when the area experienced an unusually harsh winter (snow depths in some areas were recorded at around 50 inches!). After the spring thaw, the birds didn’t return—that is, not until after Amy informed me recently that while conducting a bird survey at the property in December, she flushed 3 bobwhite quail! Lo and behold—we built it, and they came! I’m sure these are the first of many bobwhites to return to Mr. Fletcher’s property. He really has done some amazing work.
Would they have come back without the work? It’s possible, but I doubt they would have thrived. Bobwhites can handle marginal habitat conditions so long as weather conditions are favorable; if the weather gets bad… bye-bye bobwhites. The slow deterioration of bobwhite habitat on a landscape scale over the last 60 years (not just in Virginia, but across the U.S.) has caused a steady decline in bobwhite populations. Slow changes are hard to see with the naked eye, and it isn’t until after an extremely dry summer or one brutal winter until we notice a change—the bobwhites are gone. This is what I refer to as the “Vanishing Bob Phenomenon.” Many landowners I meet with tell me that they had quail on their properties until about 30 years ago, and then “they just vanished” (and this is usually followed by some poor excuse about there being too many hawks or coyotes). About 30 years ago, there was a really bad ice storm that impacted much of Virginia, but was especially hard on quail west of the Blue Ridge Mountains. In small pockets of marginal habitat where quail were still hanging on after 40 years or so of habitat loss, that harsh winter was the nail in the coffin. The hawks did not just suddenly declare war on quail.
Quality habitat, in adequate supply, enables quail to quickly rebound after severe weather events. Quail have the innate ability to increase local population size by up to 300% in a single year if habitat and weather conditions are optimal. Mr. Fletcher’s property was marginal for bobwhites before we started our habitat work, and this is supported by the fact that quail weren’t there for 5 years following that severe winter. After some field borders and fescue conversions, we’ve been able to attract birds back to his place. I’m excited to see how things will look next year after those quail have had a chance to use Mr. Fletcher’s outstanding cover to create nests, raise broods, and form coveys (and oh, by the way: he plans on creating even more quail habitat this year!).
Your results, however, may vary. Some landowners have had quail show up within a year of management. For others, it may take longer. The important thing is to remember to enjoy the fringe benefits—what we’re doing is about so much more than just quail. You know, Ray Kinsella didn’t even know why he was chalking a batter’s box as he was doing it, but he felt there would be a big reward someday. Ray enjoyed hanging out with “Shoeless” Joe Jackson and the other players BEFORE his father appeared. It’s time we all have a little bit of that Ray Kinsella faith. Build your own “fields of dreams,” and we’ll all be rewarded one day by the return of the majestic bobwhite. In the meantime… “Shoeless” Joe is a pretty cool guy.
I hope all of you had a nice holiday season. Breaks are nice, but it’s always good to get back in the work “groove.” Yesterday, as on most Sundays, I was reading our weekly edition of the Sunday Richmond Times-Dispatch. I get it primarily for sports and comics, and I especially enjoy Tee Clarkson’s outdoor column. This week in the Flair section I noticed a blurb stating that “January is national ‘Thank You’ month.” I thought to myself, “Do we really need an official ‘thank you’ month to remind us to be nice?”
A friend of mine and I were talking Saturday between woodcock coverts (Thanks for the invite, Sandy!) about how shocked some people seem to be nowadays when you do something nice for them. It’s a shame, and I sure hope we can get back to a world where doing nice things for people is as common as air. It got me thinking about all the folks who have been nice to me over the last year. I hoped to myself that I had thanked them sincerely. They are too many to recognize in this post, but I did want to mention a few, not by name, but they will know who they are.
Many fellow quail enthusiasts sent me e-mails or gave me phone calls to simply say, “hang in there, we appreciate what you all are trying to do.” That means a ton, as we get negative comments sometimes and they can get to you. Thanks to those of you out there who understand and who are trying to help bobwhites…those who recognize that you have to be part of the solution.
In a class on leadership I took with some of my peers a few years ago we learned that within our fair species there are three basic types of people “Poopers, pointers and pooper scoopers.” Poopers make messes, pointers say “look at that mess” but do nothing to help, and then there are the pooper scoopers – who take action to solve the problem. Don’t point unless you are willing to help scoop. THANKS to all of you out there who are “quail pooper scoopers.”
I am “between bird dogs” as bird hunters say who do not have a good dog to take afield. I have three dogs at home that I love and feed, but due to a combination of my circumstances and ineptness at dog training, I don’t hunt with them. One is my Daughter’s little “country mutt” that we adopted from the local pound at about 8 weeks – the dog loves me, as I fed, cradled, and cleaned up after her until she could fend for herself. But she’s into squirrels not birds.
A special “friend” in King and Queen County, who would not want his name mentioned, invites me at least once or twice a year to benefit from his enormous habitat efforts, and his pre-season release system that has worked well for him (not to mention his superior bird dogs). We went the Sunday before Christmas and found 11 coveys in 3 hours.
Thanks to all of you who have taken pity on me and shared your dogs and coverts with me. I am getting a puppy this spring – I’ve come to see there is never a “good time” to buy one, and as each year passes my bird hunting life ebbs. What’s one more dog anyway? Hopefully next year I’ll at least be able to get out and train and at some point again enjoy that relationship with a good dog. It’s all about friends, both canine and human.
I got an e-mail back in October from a “quail friend” over in Chesapeake. He’d seen my blog post on my home habitat project back in summer. In it I mentioned renting a heavy duty mower to help me keep my wildlife cover from converting back to trees. In my case, I am not in a good position to conduct prescribed burning (though I plan to try) or disking, but I can mow in rotation, in late winter and still keep some cover in fair shape. He e-mailed to say he had an older brush mower that he had become “too old” to run anymore and I could have it free if I was willing to come get it. I told him I couldn’t take it for free, but would be willing to come get it.
Long story short, I hitched up my trailer one day over the holidays and rode to Chesapeake, about 3 hours for me one way, but well worth the trip. I got a used, but very good condition walk behind brush mower for a low, but fair price according to my friend. It will work great for keeping my habitats from being overwhelmed by trees, and also for mowing fire-lines. Friends helping friends is what it takes.
A quick habitat note: most mornings rather than watch the news, I sit on my front porch and watch the day take shape (as long as it is above 25 degrees). One morning last week I watched a Cooper’s Hawk glide with his tell-tell quick three or four wing beats followed by soaring and then repeated, just a few feet off the ground. He flew into the woods west of my driveway and as he entered the woods, an up roar of song birds exploded from within. Every cardinal, towhee, chickadee and tufted titmouse in there blew out, crossed my yard and flew into the thickets I have established along my yard edges. The cardinals flew out so fast their wings sounded like a covey of quail. This year’s challenge for you all – tell a neighbor about the importance of thickets and then help them create some.
God Bless all of you and Happy New Year.
In this modern era we live in I admit to not being able to keep up with communications. As small game project leader for VDGIF I get a lot of messages every day, dozens by e-mail - some good and some bad. As an aside, though our communications methods may be quick, we need to all remember (me especially) there is a person on the other end of the note and a phone call, or meeting in person is always best.
A topic that has caused me to receive some “forceful” commentary lately is that of the quail season and bag limit. As many of you know, we (VDGIF) still allow quail hunting statewide with a bag limit of six per day. Many of you also know we have been working on a quail recovery initiative for many years now. We are doing that because across their range (in all 25 states of the National Bobwhite Conservation Initiative) quail continue to decline, markedly in some places. So why then do we still allow quail hunting?
“Geeze…you had to ask me that question again,” I may mumble to myself (because I struggle with the issue personally and it is not easy to answer). Every two years VDGIF takes public input on our game laws. (Essentially we always take public input, but this is officially for regulations). A series of committees composed of agency staff considers each and every comment. This does not mean each one is acted on or becomes a change. It does mean that they are all taken seriously. These committees debate and eventually make staff recommendations to our Board of Directors. The Board ultimately decides, after considering input from all parties involved, what changes are made.
OK, back to quail. I have been with VDGIF for 19 years and for the last 7 years have been the small game co-project leader. This is the 4th regulations cycle that I will have overseen for small game. Our small game team will again debate the issue of the quail season and bag limit. Each time in the past we have concluded that changes would make no biological difference to quail populations. Let’s look at why before we discuss sociological reasons for changing or not.
To a large degree quail hunting pressure is self-regulating. Where quail populations are low, quail hunting effort is low to non-existent. Generally speaking, as you move from east to west in Virginia, the quail population declines. Our hunter surveys show that there are about 9,000 quail hunters in Virginia (down from a high of 143,000 in 1973), but this includes incidental quail hunters who may see quail while hunting other species. To the best of our ability to determine it there are fewer than 500 avid quail hunters left in our state, and most of them can be found in the East where quail populations still produce some good hunting (some hunters finding over 100 unique coveys in a season). Avid quail hunters tend to also be avid quail conservationists. This means that they do not shoot coveys down below eight quail, and they don’t hunt them until dark. They’ll quit early enough to allow the coveys to regroup for roosting. They, more than anyone else, recognize the plight of the bobwhite.
Quail are also what biologists call R-selected species. This means they live short lives, suffer high mortality annually and have the ability to recover quickly in suitable habitat. Most quail populations, even in an un-hunted environment, suffer 80% or greater mortality annually. It is generally accepted among quail biologists that a population can suffer 20% to 40% hunting mortality without long term negative population consequences. However, it has been shown that not all quail mortality is created equal. The closer to spring a quail lives, the greater its chances of producing little quail. Studies have shown that late winter mortality (February and beyond) has more of an effect on the population than earlier mortality. This is why Virginia closes our quail season at the end of January, while other states seasons remain open through February and into March in some cases.
It is agreed among wildlife professionals that hunting is not the cause of the bobwhite quail decline and eliminating hunting will not bring them back (and reducing bag limits would have no affect at all). If we look at ruffed grouse for example, the season was closed in Virginia east of I-95. This was done primarily because restocking efforts were attempted there that ultimately failed. Though the grouse season has been closed east of I-95 for decades, grouse have not recovered there. We also note populations of many non-hunted species that use similar habitats to bobwhites are declining, too. Birds likes grasshopper sparrows, Bachman’s sparrows, prairie warblers, field sparrows, along with numerous pollinating insects, are declining primarily because of habitat loss (other factors contribute, but not hunting).
We try to base our recommendations on science to the extent possible, but there are social aspects that factor into decisions – we are humans after all. One reason we have hesitated to close the quail season in parts of the state where populations are low is that we feared it would send the wrong message. By closing the season the general public may be led to think hunting is the cause of the decline. So why close a season when we know it will have no impact on the population at all and may send the wrong message? You hopefully can now see the decision is not as simple as you might have thought.
But what about sending the right message? Should we close portions of our season to demonstrate the dire straits quail are in throughout much of Virginia? Would closing the season finally get that message out? Should we consider closing or reducing the season in central Virginia, where pockets of good quail numbers remain, but where much of the area has low quail populations? Should we consider imposing a daily time cut-off like many western states do (many end all bird hunting at 4:00 p.m.)?
Our team will consider all these scenarios again in the coming months. I personally would like to think that bird hunters are special, of high ethics, and more regulations would do little to assuage the bobwhite’s plight. As a bird hunter you need to ask yourself, “Just because I can legally kill six quail, should I?” I also hope each of you, regardless of whether you agree or disagree with our logic or the results, keep in mind, we have the best intentions at heart and we do not take these things lightly.
Lastly, Merry Christmas to all of you.