Action – a simple word and one that so many know, but so few take to heart. A “little less talk and a lot more action” as an infamous country song states so emphatically is what many circumstances need. In his book “We Are Soldiers Still” General Hal Moore wrote in his chapter on leadership that every day you need to answer two basic questions: 1) What am I not doing that I should be doing to influence the situation in my favor, and 2) What am I doing that I should not be doing? General Moore was a famous leader of soldiers in Korea and Vietnam, most noted for his book “We Were Soldiers Once and Young.”
In a much less dramatic context, I use the word A.C.T.I.O.N. as an acronym for how landowners should approach their wildlife management projects.
You -- and that means you landowner -- need to have an aerial photo, or access to aerial imagery that allows you to see your land from the “helicopter’s” perspective. And not just your land, but how your land fits into the landscape around it. It should be as up to date as possible and with today’s technology it is not hard to find an image no more than a year old.
Assess also represents assessing your goals – what do you want out of the management? With regard to quail, do you want a few coveys to see from time to time or hunt occasionally? Do want enough quail to hunt routinely? Or would you be happy just having one resident covey of quail? These questions will have a bearing on your actions. In some cases your goals may be unrealistic based on the land you have. In those situations – maybe you can manage for another species.
To further your assessment, bring in the professionals. Consult with your private lands wildlife biologist, your forester, your Natural Resources Conservation Service specialist and others if necessary. The more you prepare before their visit and the more you know about your goals, the more you will get out of their visit.
In some cases I have shown up to a property, asked the landowner about their goals and the reply was “We just want to do something for wildlife.” I have grown better over the years at asking subsequent questions to help the landowners determine their goals. But the bottom-line is you need to think ahead about what you want from the property. There is nothing at all wrong with buying a piece of property and simply walking through and enjoying it … and not managing anything on it but your time. This won’t get you any quail, though. If you want quail and their species associates, some actions will be required.
How will you produce the desired habitats to bring onto your land the types of animals you’d like to see more of? How will you maintain those habitats? What tactics, otherwise called management techniques, will you use, when will you use them, and how will you make them happen to produce your desired outcome?
Your consults with professionals and personal research should lead you to the answers. This is a big part of the job for our private lands wildlife biologists, and for our district wildlife biologists in some cases. Tactics begin with some broad brush, general situations that occur throughout much of Virginia, such as how to convert fescue to better wildlife habitat, how to properly manage pine or hardwood timber for certain wildlife species. From here things become more specifically tailored to your property.
Once this general overview and basic outline for managing your property is determined, this is where an agency biologist, or a private contractor if you prefer that option, can prepare a long-term wildlife management plan for you. It is important to note that it is impossible to get every detail into a written management plan. Much of the future management and maintenance of habitats depends on conditions that change, weather patterns, etc., so don’t try to plan every detail. Base your future management on the “O” in our acronym.
Short and sweet - Without initiative none of the above will happen. The laws of physics apply – things at rest tend to stay at rest. Same with people. Get off the couch, put the laptop down and get outside. And what about taking the kids with you? I have said before and at the risk of being repetitive – the government folks like me can help, advise, recommend, teach, help develop favorable policies, and encourage, but there are too few of us to show up and get it done for you.
Observe your management efforts. Evaluate the results. Re-assess every year, and modify management as needed to continue to keep the habitats you want. Don’t hesitate to bring the professionals back in to help observe and re-assess. I personally prefer relatively general management plans that require landowners to be engaged and to actually learn how to assess and modify management based on existing and expected conditions. The old adage about giving a man a fish versus teaching him how to fish applies. This leads us to our last and maybe most important letter.
The first thing a landowner has to do is learn to love the management. If the work becomes something you enjoy and look forward to, you’ll continue to do what is necessary. But if the work required is something you loath…chances are you will not be able to keep the management up.
In my Army days the training sergeants and later our platoon sergeants had a saying “You have to love the training men; you have to make friends with it.” I also recognize that not every landowner is in the physical condition to do the work on their own. In this case, private contractors can be used to help continue the work. In many cases, cost-share programs help pay for these efforts.
Like any other worthwhile goals in life, wildlife management goals need long term commitments of time, funds and energy. But it can and should be fun!
February 5, 2014
Marc Puckett, Virginia small game project co-leader and chair of the National Bobwhite Technical Committee, has turned over his Shell's Covert blog to guest blogger Justin Folks. Welcome, Justin!
Private Lands Wildlife Biologist
You don’t have to be made of money to create quail habitat. A little bit can go a long way for species like quail, and even a relatively large project doesn’t have to break the bank. Here are some tips on ways to help quail that won’t hurt your wallet.
PARK THE MOWER!
People blame hawks, foxes, cats, and coyotes for the decline of quail, but the mower has had perhaps the most detrimental impact of all. Simply put, quail need old field-type habitat (free of fescue or other sod grass) with bare ground, wildflowers and woody thickets scattered throughout to thrive. Mowing gives you about the exact opposite!
If you’re what we refer to as a “recreational mower” and you want quail, the first thing you should do is find another hobby. Think of all the money you spend on a mower, the fuel, maintenance and the amount of time you spend on that mower every year. By letting areas grow up (without fescue, of course), you can actually save money by creating quail habitat!
To keep the old field from becoming forest, you’ll need to mow it every 3-5 years. To ensure cover is standing at all times and to add diversity to the property, mow 1/3 of the fields once every year around March. By mowing in late winter/early spring, you leave cover standing all winter which is crucialfor bobwhite survival. Taking this approach, you’ve cut down on 2/3 of the fields you mow every year and you only have to mow it once!
Half of this field is disked every other year on rotation. Disking gives the quail bare ground to travel and forage on and promotes annual forbs like ragweed that offer excellent brooding cover. The other half has more grass for quail to nest in and offers some escape cover as well. Combine this with a soft edge around the perimeter, and you have a recipe for success. No wonder a pair of quail were seen here just prior to this photo being taken!
If erosion isn’t too much of a concern, consider using a tractor and disc as opposed to a mower. The disc promotes bare ground and broadleaf plants while still keeping trees out. Controlled burning is the ultimate quail habitat management tool, but disking is second best. If you're in Virginia and worried about what the neighbors might think if they see your fields grown up, call us and we’ll bring you some Quail Program Cooperator signs to let everyone know there is a method to your madness.They may scoff at first, but they’ll be jealous when you’re listening to male bobwhites calling in the spring and they’re not!
KILL FESCUE, THEN FALLOW
A common misconception among many of the landowners we speak to is that you have to plant something to bring quail back. This isn’t necessarily the case.
In many instances, there are a lot of great native “quail plants” in an old field that has a lot of fescue. Fescue is a cool season grass, meaning it actively grows in the fall and spring months. A systemic herbicide like glyphosate (active chemical in Roundup, Gly-4 and others) only kills what is actively growing, so by timing the herbicide application to when the fescue is actively growing and the native warm season plants are dormant, you can kill the bad stuff while leaving the good stuff.
To spray with glyphosate yourself (with the right equipment), you’re looking at a cost of around $10/acre (excluding fuel and equipment costs). Many farm cooperatives and other contractors may run you $30-$50/acre to have them spray it instead. Once the fescue is dead, let the field go fallow and allow the natives to dominate. Mow, disc or burn every 3-5 years, spot treat any fescue that might pop up, and that’s it!
FALLOW COVER CROPS
Field borders around crop fields provide enormous benefit to quail in just a small area. If you’re interested in quail and are already planting wheat, oats, rye, or barley for a fall/winter cover crop, leave strips of the cover crop at least 35 feet wide around the perimeter of your fields when you plant your commodity the following year. The cover crop will provide cover and seed for birds in the first year, and letting it go fallow will allow native plants to volunteer, which will be beneficial for quail for years to come. All you did was plant the cover crop that you would have planted anyway—Mother Nature did the rest.
Hinge cuts work best with smaller trees—say less than 6 inches in diameter. For larger trees, remove the entire tree for firewood but leave the tree top as your brush pile and substrate for birds to land and “plant” shrubs for you.
Woody thickets are more important to quail than what most folks realize. Twenty to 40% of an area should be composed of shrubby thickets to provide essential escape and thermal cover for bobwhites, but shrubs are expensive and can be difficult to establish. Why bother when songbirds provide this service for free?
If you leave areas undisturbed for long enough, shrubs and trees will ultimately emerge, but to jumpstart this process, drag a cut cedar or the top out of a tree harvested for firewood out into a field. This creates a little bit of cover immediately, but it provides more of a perch for songbirds to land on and deposit shrub seeds.
Don’t mow or disc within 50 feet of the tree, and watch as blackberries, sumac, dogwoods, and other shrubs emerge on their own. You may also create a cheap perch by running some wire between two posts. Shrub thickets should be no more than 150-300 feet apart.
This windrow of logging slash exemplifies what can happen if you leave a tree top in a field. This is only a few years old, but blackberry and pokeberry have taken it over. Outstanding quail cover… for free
If there is a standing tree in the field you want to remove eventually, try hinge-cutting the tree to get the same effect. A hinge cut is cutting through one side of a tree just far enough to where it will fall but it will remain attached to the stump. The tree will act as a living brush pile for a year or two until it dies, but by then, birds will have landed in the branches and deposited shrub seeds for you. You may then cut the tree up for firewood and your shrub thicket has been started. Hinge cutting is another great way to “soften” field edges where hayfields meet mature forest.
These are just a few ways in which you can help create habitat for bobwhite quail, rabbits, songbirds, and other wildlife without forking out a lot of cash. Of course, planting a native seed mixture is always an option, but it may be worth it to see what comes up out of the seed bank before you plant. You’d be amazed at what may emerge, and we often see plants that money can’t buy.
Biologist Justin with dog Shelby in quail habitat
About the Author
Justin grew up in the city of Staunton, VA and got his undergraduate degree in Biology and Environmental Science at Bridgewater College in VA. After a year of non-wildlife-related work, Justin worked as the Chronic Wasting Disease Technician with the VA Department of Game and Inland Fisheries before going back to school. He received his Master’s degree in Range and Wildlife Management in 2012 after researching white-tailed deer foraging behavior at the Caesar Kleberg Wildlife Research Institute at Texas A&M University-Kingsville. After graduating, Justin became one of Virginia’s five Private Lands Wildlife Biologists working on Virginia's Quail Recovery Initiative, where he currently enjoys working with landowners interested in creating early successional wildlife habitat. Justin currently lives in Staunton, VA with his wife Dana, his 6 month-old son Barrett, and his bird dog Shelby.
I am writing this during the season of Thanksgiving and celebration. I am thankful for so many things, family, job, the ability to live in a free country and practice the religion of my choice, my right to keep and bear firearms, my access to millions of acres of public lands managed in trust for all of us, an open society where we can criticize our leaders without fear of retaliation, and a strong military which allows us to keep all these things - the list goes on.
I am also thankful we have a National Bobwhite Conservation Initiative and an NBCI staff. As Chair of the National Bobwhite Technical Committee’s Steering Committee, I have been intimately involved in the discussions regarding state use of a small portion of windfall Pittman-Robertson (Federal Aid in Wildlife Restoration dollars- excise taxes on firearms and ammunition) funds to provide increased support for NBCI staff in the short term. I have been involved with the NBTC and the NBCI since only a few years after their inception in1995 (my involvement began in 1997). I have seen the group grow from a relatively small, southeastern-based Southeast Quail Study Group, to a 25-state range-wide entity (NBTC) with a parallel core group of “quail dedicated” staff (NBCI) – currently at very little cost to the states, and no cost for some. No growth comes without pain, trial and error and soul searching.
I think we are at a crossroads for bobwhite recovery and the next 3 to 5 years will be pivotal for bobwhite conservation.
When we moved to enlarge the SEQSG to become the 25-state NBTC I guess we knew that perhaps not all states would be fully on board. I understand that and I want to say in advance, whether a state is on board with NBCI or not, I appreciate their dedicated field staff and all they do on behalf of quail and so many other species every year. I will also say that we should appreciate good quail work whether it is done under the flag of NBCI or not.
But I also believe that if we could all work together under the umbrella of NBCI, we could be more effective nationally and within our own states. With regard to current NBCI staff funding, with the exception of Director Don McKenzie, they have been funded largely by annual grants from the National Fish and Wildlife Foundation (NFWF) or the Multistate Conservation Grant Program. So every year NBCI staff not only has the fear of a short-term funded job hanging over their heads, they also have to work hard to find funding for subsequent years. This obviously detracts from their effectiveness – though they have been remarkably effective in-spite of this, in my opinion.
Our recent plea to states has been to request for a 3-year period significant use of Pittman-Robertson (P-R) funds to support NBCI staff. The intention is to allow the NBCI staff time and resources to thrive and reach their potential value and productivity, without having to spend inordinate time annually looking for money.
Simultaneously, the Bobwhite Foundation, an entity designed to eventually provide private funding through an endowment to support NBCI Staff and operations long term, would have those years to organize and develop a funding base to offset the need for annual grant writing. The amounts per state if all 25 participated would range from $20,000 to maybe as much as $75,000 annually, based on a state’s proportion of received P-R dollars. These amounts are significant to you and me, and should not be sneezed at, but as a portion of a given state agency’s annual budget, represent a very low percentage.
Well, first why do all this? Can’t each state manage its own quail recovery without NBCI?
At the risk of sounding ungrateful for all that state agencies do –and it is a ton – our record over the last 25-40 years with quail recovery is not great. This is not for a lack of trying. Many states have labored valiantly and had some successes along the way. But large scale success has been limited.
But when you compare us to “the duck folks” who have a National Wetlands Conservation Act, the federal Duck Stamp and a federal agency with significant portions of its resources dedicated to their recovery – (not to mention a very effective NGO in Ducks Unlimited) it’s not hard to see why they have had more success. There are other factors involved, but the bottom-line is – states need help.
I would argue that all NBCI is trying to do is to be that umbrella group that develops momentum at the national level for quail recovery. Much like Ducks Unlimited worked along side the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service and state agencies, the quail NGOs (Quail Coalition, Quail Forever, Quail and Upland Wildlife Federation, the National Wild Turkey Federation and more) work alongside NBCI, NBTC and state and federal agencies. NBCI is not trying to usurp anyone’s power or ability to do what they do. Rather they hope to become the force multiplier for quail recovery. The eventual goal is for NBCI to become a “giver to states” not a “requester of state funds.” But if this effort dies on the vine before that can happen – in my opinion one of the greatest opportunities for quail and early-succession wildlife in our lifetime will be lost.
Right now many states are supportive whole hog and they see the long term benefits of a strong NBCI. Our quail NGOs are also supportive and also careful to help NBCI see its role and stay within it. But some state agencies are not sold on the idea yet. And I understand where they are coming from – money is crucial to many of their programs and they do not yet believe their return on investment in NBCI will be high enough to justify the cost. It seems some states are saying “show us the results and we’ll show you the money,” and NBCI says “show us the money and we’ll show you the results.”
I personally believe in NBCI. A saying our agency senior staff uses quite often when field staff are too quick to criticize management decisions is “assume good intent” meaning “please do not be too quick to judge managers as having some subversive agenda – we have your best interests at heart.” I assume good intent from NBCI. Having known these people for years, some of them for over 20 years, I only see that they are struggling with how to do what is best for bobwhite quail range-wide…and without any authority at all.
Leadership is best defined as “the ability to get things done without any authority at all.” And that is why great leadership is one of the hardest things to achieve in life. NBCI is trying to provide great national leadership for bobwhite recovery and I for one hope states will embrace the P-R funding concept and give the NBCI a chance to show us what they can do. If the NBCI ultimately fails, I’d rather the states have first provided NBCI a real fighting chance to succeed than deny it a meaningful chance to try.
I caveat all this by saying I have worked for a great state agency (VDGIF) for almost 18 years and recognize how many issues they all face, with quail recovery being just one of hundreds. For this reason, as much as any other, this is why I believe we need NBCI.
- Marc Puckett – NBTC Chair – VDGIF Small Game Team Leader
I felt compelled to write this post about pen-raised quail, in part, because in Virginia and I suspect elsewhere, stories are becoming more common about landowners using pen-raised quail in an attempt to restore wild bobwhite populations.
I’ll start by saying that as I age, the more humble I become. I am not as arrogant a person now at nearly 51, and that is somewhat due to the fact that in my arrogant youth I ate a lot of humble pie. I also know that landowners, farmers in particular, are very resourceful people used to solving their own problems. So when someone tells me they have used pen-raised quail to re-establish wild quail populations I do not immediately scoff at their claims.
I will start, though, by saying science has not documented long-term, viable quail population recovery based on pen-raised quail release. By that I mean, my definition of true success would be a situation where the original released pen-raised quail reproduced successfully, and their offspring reproduced successfully as did the next generation and so on –without the need for annual supplements of more pen-raised quail. That is now a “self-sustaining” population of wild bobwhites. I personally believe that most claims of “success” using pen-raised quail are much shorter term, meaning some released during fall make it until spring and are heard calling, or perhaps occasionally even reproduce.
This may be seen as “success” but to me more is required. My heart goes out to landowners who are desperate to see and hear bobwhites. No one has worked harder to bring back quail in Virginia than me and my colleagues. And like these well-intended people, we love quail. I think two things we all agree on – 1) we love bobwhite quail and want them to come back, and 2) regardless of methods used to restore quail, you have to have great habitat to start off with.
Let me take a minute to mention science. I fear we are living in an age when folks are starting to believe science is not necessary. I hear it often said, “common sense is what is lacking in America, not science.” Well, in my humble opinion, perhaps the best example of common sense is the recognition of how important science is.
For example, suppose someone says they have invented a vaccine for the common cold, but it has not been scientifically tested, they just know it works. Nothing is known about side effects, or effectiveness of the vaccine. Will you be first in line at your pharmacy to get that vaccine? Or how about this scenario – a brash engineer designs a new bridge-building technology, but doesn't test it before building a bridge – will you be the first to drive across? Extreme examples maybe, but we owe the vast majority of advancements in our society to sound science (and hard work and faith – they are not mutually exclusive). Saying something is so, just because we "know" it is so, or believe it is so, is not enough.
What do we know about pen-raised quail?
First, there is a wide range of quality in pen-raised quail … how they are hatched, raised, bred, etc. If you are going to release pen-raised quail, you owe it to the environment to use the highest quality, healthiest quail you can obtain. In Virginia it is the law that to import quail from another state requires a certificate from the supplier that 20% of the quail in the flock being sold have been disease tested within at least 10 days of being shipped. Further, if you are planning to buy quail eggs to hatch and raise, or if you plan to breed and raise your own quail, you need a Propagator’s Permit from our Department of Game and Inland Fisheries (at this link: http://www.dgif.virginia.gov/forms/PERM/PERM-014.pdf ). This permit helps us keep track of who is raising, selling and releasing quail in Virginia. This is particularly important when you consider the vast poultry industry in Virginia and the economic implications of potential quail diseases to poultry producers.
What else can we say? Are fall pre-season release methods using pen-raised quail being used to provide longer term survival and more realistic hunting for bobwhites? Yes, but not without annual, if not semi-annual, supplementation with further releases and also supplemental feeding.
Are pen-raised quail being used to maintain interest in quail among young and old? Yes they are, and as long as the right message is used – that these are not wild bobwhites – that use is a good one.
Are pen-raised quail being used effectively to train bird dogs? Yes, so much so that I heard one trainer say she did not like wild bobwhites because they would not hold for the dogs. Seriously , it would be hard to train bird dogs today without pen-raised quail.
Are pen-raised quail being used to maintain a tradition of bird dog field trials? Yes. No argument there. Our country has a long and proud tradition of bird hunting and field trialing heritage and it is worth maintaining.
Even though I have been working with wild bobwhites for over 20 years, which included studying them for my Masters degree in Wildlife Ecology and trapping and radio-tracking over 600 wild bobwhites on various quail research projects, and even though I have talked to hundreds if not thousands of landowners over the years, and have raised and trained my own bird dogs and have talked to dozens of game bird breeders – I certainly do not know everything there is to know about quail, wild or otherwise.
I also believe if done properly, releasing pen-raised quail does not harm wild bobwhites and in some ways continues to offer us hope. But I do worry that if we start to accept pen-raised quail as being wild – after all their calls sound just like wild quail and they look just like wild quail – that maybe we will begin to devalue wild bobwhites. I mean if you can buy them for $3 or $4 dollars apiece, or better yet raise your own for less, and release some every year – maybe we will start to feel like we don’t need real wild quail anymore? Maybe we will develop an almost “pet mentality” when it comes to quail. I hope not. I hope we will always value and try to restore truly wild populations of bobwhite quail – one of the most gallant, gamey and tough little birds ever to inhabit Virginia.
Today’s existing situation with the federal government brings a story to mind.
A couple of years ago we were conducting a requested quail management workshop in eastern Virginia (county not named to protect the guilty). We had a good crowd of about 80 or 90 and when it came my turn to speak I said, “Don’t sit around and wait for the government to come do it for you, only you can create quail habitat. (That was my "play" on Smokey the Bear’s “only YOU can prevent wildfires.”)
A middle-aged lady in the back of the room responded by jumping up and shouting “YEAH!!! Don’t wait for the d**n government to do it! Get up and get it done yourself!!!”
After which followed a lot shouts of “Amen!” and “You tell ‘em sister,” along with applause.
As a government employee working in this field of conservation, I’d first like to say no one works harder, or is more dedicated, than the thousands of government employees who perhaps forgo higher paying jobs in the private sector to lead a life of community service. The government employees I work with don’t refer to their work as “jobs,” but rather as “careers,” or vocations to which they are called by heartfelt passion.
That said, in our role as wildlife biologists there are too few of us, too widely scattered to come to your farm and do the work ourselves. Our role is that of the enabler, the facilitator and the educator. We provide the landowner the know-how, the tools, the means and sometimes the funds to get habitat work done on their land. Ultimately, whether or not quail and their habitat associates make a meaningful return to the landscape is up to the landowners whose properties -- big, medium and small -- make up the bulk of our country.
“Remember, only YOU can create quail habitat!” And on that note, what follows is a description of my own small contribution.
I conducted my own little habitat project this spring and summer. Last year, we had our pine timber thinned. The resulting logging deck provided an opening of about ¾ of an acre, maybe an acre, upon which to try something.
The loggers did a good job of cleaning the deck off and helping me prevent erosion, but the resulting surface would have made for a nice clay court tennis match. As soon as the loggers cleared out last summer, I broadcast-planted a cover crop of brown-top millet and buckwheat to help prevent erosion, to provide a little food and cover for wildlife and to start rebuilding the soil.
It did better than I expected. The impressions left by the dozer tracks seemed to hold seed and moisture and by fall I had a nice stand that was attracting doves. By spring, however, the plantings had thinned down and little cover remained. I decided to try a native warm season grass and forb planting in an attempt to create my own small wildlife meadow.
Now, I have no equipment other than hand tools, and can’t afford a tractor or disc, so what could I do with what I had? As my Dad has always said – “do the best you can with what you got.” For me that meant planting with a standard walk-behind broadcast lawn seeder. I obtained a 25lb mix of “floor sweepings” from a reputable native grass company with a guarantee that there were no invasives or other unwanted seeds in it.
I could identify many of the seeds, but not all. I saw indiangrass, switchgrass, big and little bluestem seed, along with some partridge pea and then a few wildflower seeds I didn’t recognize. Since I expected poor germination, I planted the entire 25 lbs on March 7, just before a forecast rain. And since I had no way of working the seed into the soil, I also covered the entire area with wheat straw – about 30 to 40 bales total -- spread at a moderate coverage level to help hold the seed in place and hold moisture for germination. And then I waited.
Initially it appeared the stand would be a failure – well, at least a failure of what I planted, because there was plenty of ragweed and other plants resulting from the soil's native seed bank. And since this was a wildlife planting, I was happy to see those native weeds that quail need to thrive. This is an important note to all of you who are considering a planting of native grasses and wild flowers for wildlife – you do not want a pure stand of grasses. You need the mixture of annual forbs and legumes along with the grasses to be truly successful for quail.
Well, as the summer progressed I began to notice that germination had actually been pretty good and I started to see a good bit of partridge pea, some black-eyed Susans, a handful of cosmos, lots of native tick seed sunflowers…and a bunch (pardon the pun) of native grasses popping up through the ragweed. The area ended up being almost perfect from a quail’s point-of-view. There is a fantastic mixture of native grasses, legumes and forbs, and there is 40 – 60% bare ground underneath it all. As you know – quail need this bare ground to increase their mobility and their ability to find seeds and insects. Throw in some nearby thickets for escape cover and all my patch lacks is size.
It is already loaded with pollinating insects and many songbirds, and I’m hopeful a quail covey might someday find and use it at least part of the year. This area will serve as a seed source as I expand my habitat by conducting understory burning in the surrounding pines (hopefully – pending funds).
So can small landowners help? Absolutely! And don’t forget the sheer enjoyment of a project like this. There is nothing like some physical labor that you can see the results of to cure those “office desk jockey blues.”
--October 3, 2013