Some would say that the phrase “successful failure” would be an oxymoron. I would not.

Some may say that makes me the last half of the last word in the first sentence. Time will tell.

Our quail recovery initiative has hit the 5 year mark here in Virginia. As hard as we have worked and as much progress as we have made, many may still consider us a “failure” because their sole measure of success is  restoration of quail throughout the entire Commonwealth. Well…that won’t be done in 5 years, or 10…it may take 15 or 20, or 25 or more … as  it did for deer, turkey, bear and others.

I know I am very proud of our quail team. And the key word is TEAM, and the dozens of landowners, conservation professionals, non-governmental organization members and other entities comprising it. And I believe if we have been a failure we have been a remarkably successful failure. In fact, I’d be proud to be associated with failures of this magnitude. Indefinitely.  And I would further say if we continue to fail at this rate, we’ll restore quail in my lifetime (I am 51 now – this is if I live to be 71 – and there are no guarantees on that).

Last year our quail team was presented the 2013 Merit Award by the Virginia Society of Soil and Water Conservation. The award was given to us for team building and partnership. Our core quail team consists of the Virginia Natural Resources Conservation Service, the Conservation Management Institute at Virginia Tech, our private lands wildlife biologists and the DGIF small game team. Many, many others are part of this team and have graciously partnered with us over the past five years.

What have we done? For starters over the last 5 years our private lands wildlife biologists have made over 2,000 site visits, to almost 1,400 unique landowners, writing over 1,200 management plans, participating in over 950 outreach events, and created or maintained over 33,400 acres of early-succession habitat. This represents $4,307,900 dollars in cost-share – or an average of about $128.00 per acre of habitat. The landowners they have worked with collectively own over 229,000 acres of land.

   
   

During this same time period we distributed over 2,000 promotional DVDs, over 2,000 habitat management DVDs, conducted workshops for more than  525 people, enrolled 320 landowners in our Quail Management Assistance Program, have appeared on Virginia Farming several times, have had articles on quail recovery in all major newspapers and magazines, organized the Virginia Quail Council with 28 signed conservation partners, worked with the Virginia Department of Forestry to implement a new wildlife friendly forestry best management practices program, completed two research pilot projects, planned for new research, helped develop several quail habitat demonstration areas, supported prescribed fire training for all our staff, continued  our yearly quail surveys, and simultaneously enhanced our survey methods to include numerous species of early-succession habitat associated song-birds such prairie warblers, field sparrows, and towhees.

Simultaneously, several of our staff have held office in the National Bobwhite Technical Committee, and its strategic implementation component, the National Bobwhite Conservation Initiative. Virginia is one of seven pilot states testing NBCI’s new model focal area program – designed to document the association between habitat and quail, and to provide opportunities for even small, quail-range outlying states to show meaningful progress. And in summer 2013 we hosted the 19th annual meeting of the National Bobwhite Technical Committee with help from many of our members and sponsoring entities.

Along the way our Virginia Quail Council members also collected goods and sent care packages to our troops in Afghanistan.  The 4th Brigade Combat Team (Airborne) 25th Infantry Division presented a Certificate of Appreciation and Unit Flag to our Virginia Quail Council.

I think no species has allowed wildlife professionals to train more landowners or partner agency staff about real wildlife habitat management than has the bobwhite quail. When we go back to Aldo Leopold’s “fire, cow, ax and plow” as the basic four wildlife management tools – the bobwhite has allowed us to bring those tools and many modifications to more landowners than any other species I can think of.

I believe there is a quail recovery brewing. Our ability to detect it is in development but not yet fully formed. But we have “sown seeds with faith,” thousands of them.  And many of them “have fallen on fertile ground and are producing fruit.” I believe if we continue to “fail” as well as we have in the last 5 years, and if the National Bobwhite Conservation Initiative is given the chance to “fail” in such a manner on a larger scale, the bobwhite quail has a bright future. We can “snatch quail victory from the predatory jaws of defeat.”

Thanks to everyone who has supported us in these efforts over the past 5 years, and we hope you will continue to support us in the future.

Members of the Virginia Quail Council include:  Virginia USDA NRCS, and USDA FSA, Conservation Management Institute at Virginia Tech, the U.S. Forest Service, Virginia Tech College of Natural Resources, Quail Forever, Quail and Upland Wildlife Federation, Virginia Department of Forestry, the National Wild Turkey Federation, the Ruffed Grouse Society, Angler Environmental, the Nature Conservancy, the National Audubon Society, Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation Divisions of, State Parks, Natural Heritage and Soil and Water Conservation, including the Agricultural Cost-share Program, Virginia’s Soil and Water Conservation Districts, Virginia Department of Mines, Minerals and Energy, Virginia Cooperative Extension, Virginia Department of Transportation, the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Dominion Virginia Power, American Electric Power, Quantico Marine Corps base, U.S Army – Ft. Pickett and Ft. A.P. Hill,  U.S. Army Radford Army Ammunition Plant, American Woodcock Initiative, Reese, River Birch and Falkland Farms (Halifax County), Central Virginia and Rappahannock Electric Cooperatives and the Wildlife Foundation of Virginia.

Just a Simple Whistle...

I left my house at 4:15 this morning to go out to do what hundreds of biologists do for dozens of species every year –

conduct wildlife surveys and monitor their populations.Invariably I’ll have at least one or two people stop and ask me what I am doing. When I tell them they almost always reply “Man, what a cool job, you got it made” and then drive off. Hard to argue with that most of the time…unless you factor in the stress that comes from trying to bring back an entire species across land areas measured in hundreds of thousands of square miles. Especially if you really care about these little chicken-like birds we call bobwhites.

As I drove around today between stops I could not help but to think a little bit about what those soldiers, airmen and sailors were thinking about 70 years ago when they got up at 3:30 to run headlong into danger. Today of course is the 70th anniversary of D-Day. I also wondered what would they think of what I was doing? Would they think that anything I ever did was worth risking their life for?

Truth is most of them were scared young kids who were not thinking of anything other than whether they’d survive the day, and then the next day, and then the one after that. Soldiers will tell you when the chips are down they don’t fight for God or country, but for each other. One other thing they’ll tell you – those lucky enough to survive that is, that upon returning to this world, it was the simple things they found they loved the most. An ice cream cone on a Sunday afternoon after Church, watching a Little League baseball game after work, the simple pleasure of driving a car, in a free country, on roads that belonged to everyone, and I’d be willing to bet, the simple whistle of a male bobwhite on a clear June morning.

On this 70th anniversary of D-Day, I am glad I live in a country where plenty of people still care about the environment and our surroundings; and not simply care about what is here today, but what will be here for their kids on the 100th anniversary of D-Day, and the 200th. I am also glad that even though we do not always agree about how to conserve resources, we all agree we should be free to argue about it, even with our government, without fear of being purged, imprisoned or eliminated.

I heard nine bobwhites singing this morning, along with many indigo buntings, field sparrows, prairie warblers, and even two grass hopper sparrows. My reports will be but one speck of data in an ocean of it that collectively allows us to make informed decisions about species management. But to me, those bobwhite calls are a part of my heritage and something I love. Something I also believe to be part of the thousands of American fibers that form the fabric that collectively makes up our way of free life … and worth dying for.

Any parent knows that kids can ask some pointed and surprising questions…and generally in the most embarrassing place possible. As a wildlife biologist, I was not totally unprepared for this question from my daughter, “What do you do, Daddy?”

 “Say what?”

 “Daddy, what do you do for work?”

 “Well Sweetie…I am a wildlife biologist.” To which more quickly than a striking snake she replied, “No, Daddy...what do you do at work?!”

Naturally, this was in front of several other parents ... who probably wondered the same thing. Well, having talked to numerous school groups in various settings, I had become accustomed to starting my talks to them with a question, “What do you all think a wildlife biologist does for a living?” Hands would go up and as surely as kids love cake, the first answer was always “Study wildlife!!!” expressed with a bright-eyed sparkle of satisfaction. “Yes, we do study wildlife, and why do you think we study wildlife? Well, because if we did not know much about them, we would not be able to manage for them very well.”

I always used this question as an introduction before demonstrating and letting them use numerous wildlife management equipment like radio-telemetry gear, or quail traps, or a bear tranquilizing pole syringe (with no syringe attached). The adage “Tell me and I forget, involve me and I learn” applies. These events usually went well, but at the end I never felt like I had truly captured the essence of what the job is.

Author's daughter swinging on a grapevine

That was until my wife and I bought land of our own. I, like many, had always dreamed of owning a small slice of this earth, or at least borrowing it for a few decades (the earth will own us all someday). Upon owning our 42 acres I came to realize I had taken a lot of things for granted as a seasoned wildlife biologist…because I knew how to make the land work for me to create the wildlife habitat and thus the wildlife I wanted.

A big part of my job has always been helping private landowners evaluate and manage their land. Whether it is strictly in the name of quail (great quail management tends to be great early-succession habitat management for dozens of species), or simply helping landowners conduct sound habitat management, one of our key roles is being able to guide landowners and help them achieve their goals. 

How do you help a landowner “see” their land? There is science involved, but mainly it is a feel developed over years of a life outdoors thinking about how animals relate to their surroundings. This then has to be combined with the technical knowledge and communications skills necessary to convey the best information they can put to use “in real time.” While it may not be rocket science, it is a whole lot more than buying a couple bags of the latest food plot mix and planting some “patches” and thinking you’ve done “wildlife management.”

Over the years the most rewarding moments for me have been when that special landowner “gets it.” They see for the first time how habitat is not static, how manipulating it is not bad, how cover types interact, and that it takes some effort over time … but they can indeed learn how to manage their land to have their own wildlife paradise.

In short, their dreams can come true. So as terribly sappy as it may sound, when my daughter asks me now what we do as biologists I can answer with a straight face, “Little Buddy – at least some of the time we help fulfill dreams.” At the end of the day, regardless of what species initiative we may be working on or what regional or national goal we may be working towards, we serve private landowners – citizens with personal dreams.

It’s A Shell Game Out There

(… Or, These Ain’t Your Grandpa’s Quail)

                                                                                        
Landscape of bobwhite habitat with thicket cover

All of you should be familiar with a “shell game.” No reference to my old setter, Shell, who played her own games when it was time to get back in the dog box. What I refer to is the simple old shell game. A dozen walnut shells, perhaps painted in bright colors to fascinate kids and hidden under one was a dime, or a quarter – back in the late 19th or early 20th century these weren’t amounts to scoff at.

 These games may have been used to entice citizens at county fairs to come in and then spend money on more elaborate games, always rigged in the house’s favor. (My daughter and I still attend our county fair every fall, and while some may say these fairs have become less than desirable places for families, I still find a magic in them worth sharing. But that’s another story.) However – what follows is a very simple shell game analogy as to how you should view your land and manage it to provide cover for quail.

I hear on almost a daily basis from so many well meaning sportsmen their views on what has been and is causing the quail decline. Predators, pesticides, pollution, mowing, and more top most lists. Some of these things we can do more about than others, and trust me we are trying to address them all every day. With regard to predators – I believe there are more predators now and I believe quail have adapted to some extent to their higher numbers. Quail undergo a new generation every year – thus in terms of evolving, they can change much faster than humans when conditions warrant it. Hence my sub-title, “These ain’t your Grandpa’s quail, Boooooyyyyyy!”

My belief is that they have adapted to using heavier cover than ever before, and that thicket cover is more important now to quail than it was 100 years ago. Remaining quail fly farther, faster and deeper into thickets than their predecessors. I’m also convinced that while we have undergone an enormous quail population decline, there are more quail out there than hunters find and they are in places where what I call “old time bird hunters” don’t really go.

So what about this shell game theory for quail thicket management? If you think of a quail covey as the dime and thicketsas the walnuts they hide under, as a predator would you rather have to look under 2 walnuts, or 20 to find your covey? It is estimated that 25% of your land needs to be in some form of thicket cover to be ideal for quail. I suggest 10% to 15% is a minimum that is more workable for most landowners. The good news is, these thickets do not have to all occur in your fields. They can occur just as effectively within thinned and burned pines or hardwoods. The thickets within your cut-overs also count – which brings me to another point, using less intense site preparation herbicides when preparing to plant pines will help leave a lot of good blackberry and other thickets out in those cut-overs, and further down the road, within those thinned pine stands.

So how do you visualize the arrangement of this cover? It’s best when it occurs randomly and well distributed throughout a property. One way I have illustrated this is to say visualize a checkerboard, with its red and black squares. If you were to number each square, then put those numbers in a hat and draw 15% of them out and paint each square whose number you drew green, you’d see random visualization of how thickets should be arranged on the landscape.

I recall hunting in western Kansas back in the mid 90s – and how perfectly well distributed the plum thickets were. You really didn’t need a dog to hunt quail there (though shame on you if you don’t have one). All you had to do was look under enough of the plum “shells” and you’d find some quail to shoot at … and miss. Those that were missed had vast numbers of other coverts to fly to, thus making an attempt to relocate them harder.

The point is, stop worrying over things you can’t control and go do something about the things you can control. For landowners the number one thing you can control is habitat. (And to some degree pesticides – remember, it is your choice if, how and when you use them.)

April 14, 2014

... Or, How do Bobwhites Fare in Bad Winters?

Winter snow scene  
   

 

The topic on everyone’s mind these past few weeks has been, “When will this blasted winter ever end?” Few Americans escaped winter’s effects this year. In my home state of Virginia it has been one of the worst 3 or 4 winters in my 51 years of breathing air on this planet. I do recall back in the late 1970s a couple of winters in southwest Virginia that were severe by most standards. Of course, compared to Wisconsin where quail used to thrive, and where some important early research was done on quail (Paul Errington – Aldo Leopold’s first doctoral student in wildlife), I suspect our winter would not have been considered severe.

I won’t get too scientific on you, partly because I don’t have a great deal of time to really delve into old literature and see what I can find about winter weather’s effects on bobwhite populations. But also because I prefer to take a practical approach whenever possible. I picture a bobwhite covey out there making a snowman of their own, using partridge pea seeds for buttons, of course, lespedeza for eyes and maybe a beggar weed pod for a long nose. Sorry, I’m digressing.

Bobwhites occur in a very wide geographic area – from Mexico all the way into the northern prairies and east through Michigan, Wisconsin and even into southern Maine at one point – though I doubt many occur there now. Obviously, they can adapt to extreme winter weather. Some say, perhaps, that a Texas quail is vastly different from a Wisconsin quail, but in reality those who get into sub-speciation are truly hair splitters –the similarities among sub-species far outweigh the differences.

What we do know about bobwhites, as for just about any other animal, is that when they become stressed by cold they need more calories to maintain their body heat. Guthery (2000) in his book “On Bobwhites” (available in NBCI’s online store at http://bringbackbobwhites.org/donate-2/online-store) states that at 32 degrees (F) a bobwhite needs 50 kilocalories a day to maintain itself. This equals about 550 milo seeds per bobwhite.

Of course, bobwhites have other ways of mitigating for cold weather. They roost at night in a tightly packed disk which helps them conserve heat, among other things. They also seek areas where cover and terrain gives them protection from winds. During the day they may seek small micro-climate areas on southern slopes where the sun provides some thermal relief. And, of course, they eat more.

All wild animals are extremely resourceful when it comes to surviving, but they can and do reach a point when cold weather becomes deadly…well at least it is the proximate cause. I would argue the ultimate cause is often the fact that they inhabit “sub-optimal range.” In layman’s terms that means their habitat is not adequate.

During the mid-1990s I was a field crew leader on a  Virginia quail study involving numerous bobwhites with radio-transmitters affixed during February. We were actually able to track them through 2 substantial snowfalls during the first and third weeks of February that year. We found  they shifted their range and moved into pine forests where heavy cover limited snow depth and also where numerous greenbrier thickets occurred. We did not do a food analysis, but assumed that they were feeding on abundant greenbrier berries, as grouse often do. There were a couple of occasions when we did believe quail died due to exposure. These were  instances when the weather changed rapidly, going from very warm to very cold overnight in late winter – similar to some conditions we have seen in Virginia this year.

In Oklahoma, during a study in the early to mid-1990s (Peoples et al., 1994 – Progress Report Packsaddle Northern Bobwhite Mortality Study), researchers found that as much as 19% of winter mortality was due to severe weather. However, when averaged out over all seasons and areas, weather only accounted for 2% of annual mortality. When an average quail population suffers 80% to 90% mortality annually – which is a now a known, well-accepted fact throughout much of their range – it would seem that winter weather overall is a minor mortality factor. I believe that to be true here.

This winter’s weather probably did kill a few quail. But quail are adapted to high mortality rates and if they have adequate habitat and a good nesting season, they can bounce back faster than a super ball coming at you off a brick wall. Our primary problem here in Virginia has been, and continues to be, too little good quail habitat. Other factors compound this problem. New research on neonicotinoid (nicotine based) pesticides suggests they could play a role.

Regardless of other factors, quail can’t survive on concrete, asphalt or fescue. Every landowner’s best insurance for having quail year-in and year-out is to have excellent quail habitat. And as much of it as you can stand.

March 21, 2014

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Marc Puckett

 

 

Small Game Project Co-Leader

Virginia Department of Game and Inland FisheriesMarc and daughter

 

Marc was born in Pulaski, Virginia in 1962. He earned his BS in Forestry and Wildlife from Virginia Tech in 1992, and completed his Masters of Science in wildlife biology at North Carolina State University in 1995. Marc’s thesis focused on trapping, radio-collaring and tracking bobwhite quail within an intensive agricultural system and examining quail response to the addition of field borders. Marc went on to work on several quail research projects where he trapped and tracked over 600 wild quail. He has worked for 17 years with the Virginia Department of Game and Inland Fisheries as a private lands habitat biologist, a district wildlife biologist and for the last five years as small game project leader and quail recovery initiative coordinator. Marc served as an infantry paratrooper in several airborne units including the 82nd Airborne Division from 1983 to 1987. He is married to Sarah Elam of Prospect, Virginia. Marc and Sarah, along with their daughter Grace, reside in Pamplin, Virginia where they hike, fish, hunt, and enjoy the country life together.