Hunting Public Land Quail

By: David Hoover, Small Game Coordinator, Missouri Department of Conservation

As an avid bird hunter I hunt both public and private lands and have had many quality hunts on both. However, as many of you have likely experienced, hunting quail on public lands is often more challenging. So much so that hunters are often left with the impression there are no quail to be found; even on areas where proven survey techniques have documented good quail populations. Why is this? One of the obvious reasons relates to the fact that public lands generally receive more hunting pressure, which can cause quail to engage in evasive maneuvers not often deployed by their private land brethren. So what is the public lands quail hunter to do? Quail researchers in Kentucky recently investigated quail biology, habitat use, and daily movements on a large wildlife management area managed primarily for quail. What they found regarding quail behavior in relation to hunting pressure may be surprising to many. Some of the more interesting findings included:
  1. Bird dogs were 8.6 times more likely to find pen-raised quail than wild birds.
  2. Skilled dogs and hunters found only 29% of wild coveys on the management area.
  3. Wild quail ran from hunters in herbaceous cover and held in shrubby cover, letting hunters pass by.
  4. Most of the year, quail were found in open herbaceous vegetation within 40 yards of shrubby cover.
  5. During winter, distance to shrubby cover was generally less than 25 yards.
  6. Quail spent very little time in food plots.
Simple tips for improving success when hunting public land quail include:
  1. Trusting your dog – when dogs get birdy but don’t find anything, slow down and circle back through the area. Birds are likely there, but have moved in response to the dogs.
  2. Maintaining close spacing between hunters to minimize birds slipping through.
  3. Hunting no more than 50 yards from shrubby cover.
  4. When you flush fewer than 4 birds, don’t give up, the rest of the covey is likely close by.
  5. More dogs equals greater success.
  6. Slow down and hunt cover thoroughly.
Public land quail hunting is challenging; however, it can be rewarding with the right attitude and approach. For more information on hunting quail on public lands in Missouri, visit the Department’s quail page.  To view a summary report of the Kentucky study referenced, visit the Peabody WMA Quail report.

This article was syndicated from MOre Quail Blog Updates.

Got Habitat?

By: David Hoover, Small Game Coordinator, Missouri Department of Conservation

I loaded up my 3-year old English pointer, Ranger, along with the necessary gear to sustain us for 2 days of quail hunting in north Missouri. As I pulled up to Shane’s house, a rancher friend of mine, he greeted me with shotgun in hand and a German shorthaired pointer by his side, raring and ready to go. After a brief conversation in the driveway we loaded the dogs and hopped into his truck and headed to our first hunting spot. Along the way Shane pointed out several farms he used to hunt, even describing specific locations they had flushed coveys. I asked him why he no longer hunted those properties, knowing perfectly well what his answer would be. Shane immediately replied, “No cover.” As we continued to drive down the county road I couldn’t help but think about something a well-known quail researcher once said while trying to describe why quail populations have declined over the past 50 years. He said “Imagine driving across the state with a bird dog 50 years ago and stopping along the way at every location that looked like a good place to let the dog out and hunt. Now make that same drive today!” The point is that quail habitat used to be abundant and wide spread and today it is not; and the habitat that does exist is often in small patches and isolated from other areas of suitable habitat. Loss of habitat is the primary cause for the quail population decline over the past 50 years, and it is the one factor we can actually control. It is true that quail die from many things, including predators, weather, disease and accidents, even in areas of good habitat. What many years of research has taught us, however, is that in areas of good habitat, and enough of it, quail can thrive, and in areas that lack habitat, quail don’t. As we pulled into a cut cornfield, a long winding brushy draw lay before us. Several smaller draws entered the main draw from the surrounding uplands, all with adequate cover for quail, and maybe even an unsuspecting pheasant. Just a mere 100 yards from the truck Ranger locked up on a covey of 12 birds along the main draw. After harvesting a bird on the covey rise, we continued hunting until we came upon one of the smaller draws. We decided to take advantage of the wind, and hunt the smaller draw to the top of the ridge. On one side of the draw was the harvested corn field and on the other was a Conservation Reserve Program (CRP) buffer strip planted to native grasses and forbs (wildflowers). About 40 yards up the draw, in the buffer strip, I noticed a pheasant roost and shortly after that Ranger locked up on point again. I told Shane we have a pheasant on the run, and moments later my suspicion was confirmed when a rooster pheasant flushed just out of range. As we stood at the end of the draw, in a bean field on the ridge, Shane and I discussed how good the cover was we had just hunted and how awesome it would be if more of it existed on the landscape. We proceeded to cut across the bean field to another draw and circle back to the truck. As we headed to our next location, again passing more properties holding fond quail hunting memories for my friend, we discussed how much habitat quail really need. “As much as possible and everywhere” I replied, clearly understanding there are limits in this day and age, given 21st century economics and the human demand for food and fiber. The good news is that with a little planning, providing adequate habitat for quail to survive is possible, even on today’s intensively managed landscapes. The desire to have the dogs locate another covey of quail and the opportunity to experience the exhilarating rush of one more covey flush is what keeps Shane and I, and all the other “dyed in the wool” quail hunters going from one fall to the next. For more information regarding quail habitat and hunting opportunities in Missouri visit the Department’s quail hunting page.

This article was syndicated from MOre Quail Blog Updates.

2016 Missouri Quail Quest

By: Bill White, Private Land Services Division Chief, Missouri Department of Conservation

North Missouri MRAP Hunt

We prepared to step into the field from our parked truck, shotgun in hand. My birddog Trapper was racing around the truck, ready for the hunt to begin. My hunting partner Chris shut the truck door and 10 yards from the truck a covey exploded to flight from under a small cedar tree. They settled in about 30 yards down the fenceline under another cedar. We knew at that moment it could be a good morning in the field. Chris had not hunted quail for many years and was about to have the time of his life. We were hunting private land that had been enrolled into the Department’s new Missouri Outdoor Recreational Access Program (MRAP) that reimburses landowners to provide public walk-in hunting and fishing access opportunities on their property. More information can be found about MRAP on the Department’s website. This particular tract was primarily a weedy mess of newly planted grasses and wildflowers and a lot of edgefeathering – the perfect combination for quail. The quail must have read the same books a habitat manager does, because they were there. With a light drizzle falling, we moved along the fencerow toward the cedar tree covey, but they flushed wild and headed for the East fenceline. Once we caught up to them we got into the singles which held pretty well for the dog and the shooting was good. Well, the opportunities FOR shooting were good, can’t really say the shooting was good. We downed a few birds over solid points and the dog did the heavy work of retrieving in some pretty thick cover. Another full covey of birds flushed while we were still finding singles, so we ended up being in singles for a good hour. We found another small covey 30 minutes later and within sight of the truck we found the last covey of the morning. The finishing touch was Trapper pointing and retrieving the last single of the morning before we headed back home. 4 coveys in two and a half hours with one dog is a pretty darn good Missouri hunt. Good dog work resulted in some quail breast for the skillet. Not too many hunts do we get into a covey of birds before we even load our guns! Trapper slept all the way home, while Chris and I made plans for another hunt. I could have used a nap, too. If you are looking for a good place to hunt quail contact staff in our local offices for advice on where to go on public lands or check out the MRAP link above. Stay tuned next week for a  journal entry on a father-son quail hunt during the firearms deer season.

This article was syndicated from MOre Quail Blog Updates.

Performing Early Successional Timber Management for Quail and Other Wildlife

By: Nick Prough, Wildlife Partnership Coordinator, Missouri Department of Conservation

Many times, Ozark landowners or those who have forested tracts of land, ask about what they can do with their timber stands to help improve quail and other wildlife habitat. Most quail management information is based on crop field borders, CRP, and other grassland management. There are, however, numerous management practices that you can do as a landowner to improve your timber for quail, as well as many other species of wildlife such as rabbits, wild turkey, and white-tail deer. One such way is implementing the practice of timber thinning, commonly referred to as Timber Stand Improvement (TSI), on your forested acres. This TSI practice increases the density and diversity of vegetation on the forest floor as well as can improve and promote a healthy forested tract. Contacting your local Private Lands Conservationist (PLC) or Forester for further information and assistance on this type of timber management can be an excellent first step to doing an upcoming TSI practice for quail and many upland wildlife species. This practice can also be used in conjunction with several other practices below if the landowner desires and has the areas of timber to do multiple practices. Another timber management practice that is becoming more popular with some landowners is doing small 2 to 10 acre regeneration cuts (also called clear cuts), or what we generally refer to as temporary wildlife openings in your timber stands. This type of management practice is vital to species such as ruffed grouse and woodcock, which are early-successional forest specialists and require young, dense forests to thrive. These regeneration cuts benefit many species, including providing excellent food sources and escape cover for quail, as well as providing a diverse food source and bedding cover for white-tail deer, nesting cover for wild turkeys, and excellent cottontail rabbit habitat for many years following the regeneration cut. Again contacting your PLC or forester is an excellent way to begin the process of doing a regeneration cut in the correct location in your timber stand. A small timber harvest is generally the easiest way to create these areas. By removing the trees from the canopy, sunlight is then allowed to reach the forest floor, therefore stimulating a flush of new dense vegetation and growth at a very young age. These can then be left to grow for a period of 5 to 20 years depending on your management goals for the area. For a landowner who still wants to leave a few desirable trees standing in these small openings, a variation of this practice can be done by creating a Shelter-wood cut where maybe 10 to 15 trees per acre are left standing but the rest are removed, thus allowing for a diverse mixture of tree densities and vegetation to flourish in the newly created opening. As you can see, you can try one or a combination of the above early successional timber management practices to create some quality habitat in your existing timber stands, even if in a small size area you have to work with. This will benefit not only quail and other targeted species of wildlife you are managing for, but also many non-game species which will be utilizing your newly managed timber tracts that you have created. For additional habitat tips on early successional habitat management, and other habitat management practices that could be beneficial to your lands, be sure to look thru several of the past blog posts below this one for further information. About the author: Through an agreement between the Quail and Upland Wildlife Federation (QUWF) and Missouri Department of Conservation (MDC), Nick Prough serves as the Wildlife Partnership Coordinator for Missouri and Chief Wildlife Biologist for QUWF.  Before working for QUWF, Nick worked for MDC for over 11 years, 8 of those as a Private Land Conservationist in the Kansas City Region. Don't miss any new posts! Follow the MOre Quail Blog on our RSS feed or get updates by email.

This article was syndicated from MOre Quail Blog Updates.

Using An ATV Sprayer for Habitat Improvements

By: Nick Prough, Wildlife Partnership Coordinator, Missouri Department of Conservation

As Spring is now fully upon us, many landowners are out preparing their properties for their upcoming habitat work this year, whether that means converting some cool season grasses to native warm season grasses (NWSG) or prepping the ground for their annual food plot, a lot of habitat management spraying can be done with an ATV Sprayer and your ATV. These days many landowners have an ATV or access to one and getting a good quality ATV sprayer can greatly improve the variety and success of habitat management projects you can conduct on your property, even without having large equipment like a tractor. Below are a few tips on how to have the most success and efficiency while using your ATV sprayer this year. Buy a good quality sprayer - one that is well built to last for many years - and has an adjustable pressure gauge. Select a sprayer with a good heavy duty handgun that won't bend or break after the first couple uses. A very common ATV sprayer size is a 25-gallon unit that, under normal conditions, allows you to spray up to 2 acres of land using the boom sprayer. This 25-gallon size sprayer also fits well when strapped down to most ATV back racks without overloading the ATV or becoming unstable. The sprayer can run directly off of the ATV battery utilizing the two-wire auxiliary plug on the back of the ATV, therefore eliminating the need for an additional battery to run the sprayer. Follow the owner's manual of the specific sprayer you have for setting the actual pressure. Keep in mind that it may take some adjustments at first to get the correct pressure for the spray and coverage you want. Many sprayers with the booms out spray a good uniform pattern at about 20 to 30 PSI. If choosing to use the handgun for spot spraying, such as spraying invasive weeds or doing brush control in your grass stands, you may want to set the pressure a bit higher to about 50 to 60 PSI in order to reach longer distances and get better coverage for plants you are trying to spray. Selecting the proper speed with your ATV when spraying with the booms out is also something you will want to adjust depending on the roughness of the terrain and the pressure you selected to spray at, but an average speed of 5 to 7mph is a good common starting point. Calibrating your sprayer is also very important once you have it set-up and mounted on your ATV to ensure proper coverage of the area your wanting to spray. For further information on calibrating a sprayer, go to MDC's MO Landowner YouTube channel for a video on how this can be accomplished. After your sprayer has been calibrated, it's time to follow the label guidelines for the chemical you are mixing and start spraying the area you have selected to spray. While the booms are deployed, it is always best to overlap your coverage area by about 1 foot to make sure you don't miss any areas. There are also spray dyes available on the market that will help you know where you have sprayed and to keep you from missing too many areas or double spraying the same area multiple times, resulting in wasted herbicide and lost money. Spraying with an ATV sprayer, as with any sprayer, is best performed under lower wind conditions, thus avoiding overspray or missing targeted areas. So as you can see, with just an ATV and a sprayer, you can get out this spring and conduct a wide variety of habitat management efforts to improve your land at a fraction of the cost of many larger sprayer units, as well as reaching those hard to access confined areas that many larger equipment sprayers can't get to. For additional habitat tips on selecting the proper herbicides for spraying, and other habitat management practices, be sure to look through several of the past MOre Quail Blog entries.   About the author: Through an agreement between the Quail and Upland Wildlife Federation (QUWF) and Missouri Department of Conservation (MDC), Nick Prough serves as the Wildlife Partnership Coordinator for Missouri and Chief Wildlife Biologist for QUWF.  Before working for QUWF, Nick worked for MDC for over 11 years, 8 of those as a Private Land Conservationist in the Kansas City Region.   Don't miss any new posts! Follow the MOre Quail Blog on our RSS feed or get updates by email.

This article was syndicated from MOre Quail Blog Updates.

Spring 2015 Covey Headquarters Newsletter Available

By: Jason Sykes, Area Biologist, Missouri Department of Conservation

As we begin to see a few 60 degree days, the doldrums of winter begin to fade away and the rejuvenation of spring takes over.  It is certainly my favorite time of year, as geese and ducks make their way back north, turkey flocks break up and toms start waking up the world each morning with some furious gobbling, and we begin to hear the whistles of male bobwhites and crows of cock pheasants as they stake claim to their own little slices of heaven.  Hopefully, those small slices of heaven include some really good nesting and brood rearing cover so that the next generation will be around to do it all over again next year!  The spring 2014 edition of the Covey Headquarters newsletter provides some great informational articles and tips on improving your habitat, along with some opportunities to get out and attend a workshop. The features in this edition include:
  • Scott Sudkamp, Small Game Coordinator for the Missouri Department of Conservation, provides a very interesting article on why Missouri doesn't seem to have more ring-necked pheasants in What About Pheasants?
  • A Calendar of Events, including many prescribed burn workshops happening in the next few weeks around the state of Missouri.
  • The quarterly habitat management activities for March, April, and May.
  • Food plot seeding rates and planting times.
  • And other articles you may have already seen here on the MOre Quail Blog!
Download the spring edition of the newsletter, and many previous editions, at the Covey Headquarters Download Page. Don't miss any new posts! Follow the MOre Quail Blog on our RSS feed or get updates by email.

This article was syndicated from MOre Quail Blog Updates.

Pivot Corners for Conservation: It Just Makes Cent$!

By: Tim Kavan, Private Land Conservationist, Missouri Department of Conservation

Center pivot irrigation systems are highly efficient systems which help conserve water, reduce erosion, and cut labor costs while supplying water to grain crops during times of need.  Needless to say, they are pivotal for production agriculture.  But if you have ever tried to put a round peg in a square hole, you know that there are going to be gaps in this engineering nightmare.  Thus the self-created pivot corner, those areas of the ag field that are left without water throughout the growing seasons.  Some producers have been very creative on wise uses of pivot corners - ranging from shop headquarters, unconventional crops such as sunflowers or alfalfa, to billboard and antennae leases. An alternative solution that the Missouri Department of Conservation's Private Land Conservationists can assist you with is the development of small game conservation cover in your pivot corners.  There are several options that are currently available to producers in the state of Missouri and most of those options will require the establishment of native grasses and wildflowers to provide the food and shelter many wildlife species need.  Most programs also require winter cover areas be provided.  A pivot corner is an ideal location for conservation habitat because it often borders an alternative food source on one side and a fence row on the other. The Missouri Department of Conservation's Private Land Conservationists (PLCs) are available to offer technical assistance to landowners and their habitat management needs.  To find out who to contact near you, use the 'Who's My Local Contact?' search function to find the PLC that covers your county. About the author:  Tim Kavan is a Private Land Conservationist with the MDC serving the bootheel counties of Mississippi, New Madrid, and Pemiscot. Don't miss any new posts! Follow the MOre Quail Blog on our RSS feed or get updates by email.

This article was syndicated from MOre Quail Blog Updates.

Simple Steps to Refresh Your Winter Cover

By: Nick Prough, Wildlife Partnership Coordinator, Missouri Department of Conservation

As the recent cold winter weather across much of Missouri has had many of us rushing for the warmer cover of our houses, offices, and vehicles, so too do the wildlife that are out searching for quality habitat to escape from the extreme temperatures and snowfall - especially when the temperatures drop to near zero. So as you are out and about this early spring on your favorite tract of land take a look at your existing habitat conditions and see just what you can add or improve on to provide additional quick and easy wildlife habitat that not only helps quail, but also rabbits and many other wildlife species. Just like us, they are in need of good quality shelter and cover from weather extremes.  Additionally, this also provides excellent escape cover for them during this especially vulnerable time of year as they are exposed to a wide variety of predators that are also out looking for a quick energy producing meal. Implementing some edge feathering, also known as "Chop and Drop" cuttings, will form a network of cover over the area you are managing and effectively create a transition zone of quality habitat conditions for many upland wildlife species.  Concentrate on cutting a few of your less desirable trees along agricultural field edges or in old grassy field edges, allowing those tree branches to loosely fall where they drop. This simple task can be done this time of year to create some additional habitat areas where needed or to refresh older areas of habitat that have lost some of their cover value for wildlife due to the decay and breakdown of the existing cover over time. When you look at those areas closely you will many times see they need to be refreshed in order to maximize their value for wildlife. I recently have had several landowners use this refresh technique on several old areas they manage and they have seen some excellent results and an increased usage of those refreshed areas by a wide variety of wildlife. Both quail and rabbits moved back into those older cover areas in only a couple weeks of time (or less) after the refreshed habitat work was completed. It is always great to see some results of your recent habitat work, even if it is just an afternoon or a few hours of time spent with your chainsaw while you are out re-evaluating your favorite tract of land this early spring for quality wildlife habitat improvements that you can make with just a few simple steps. For more detailed information on creating this type of easy habitat discussed above for quail, rabbits and other wildlife, be sure to look thru several of the past MOre Quail blog posts or check out a recent publication on the Ecology and Management of Cottontail Rabbits in Missouri. About the author: Through an agreement between the Quail and Upland Wildlife Federation (QUWF) and Missouri Department of Conservation (MDC), Nick Prough serves as the Wildlife Partnership Coordinator for Missouri and Chief Wildlife Biologist for QUWF.  Before working for QUWF, Nick worked for MDC for over 11 years, 8 of those as a Private Land Conservationist in the Kansas City Region. Don't miss any new posts! Follow the MOre Quail Blog on our RSS feed or get updates by email.

This article was syndicated from MOre Quail Blog Updates.

CRP Update – CP38 SAFE and CP33 “Quail Buffers”

By: Jason Sykes, Area Biologist, Missouri Department of Conservation

As of mid-January, Farm Service Agency (FSA) county offices stopped accepting applications for the CP38 State Acres For wildlife Enhancement (SAFE) Bobwhite Quail project.  Why you may (and should) ask?  Because Missouri was rapidly approaching it's acre allocation for this project.  That means a lot of great habitat has been put on the landscape, or will be very soon, for bobwhite quail and many other species of wildlife! The CP38 SAFE Bobwhite Quail Habitat Restoration Project (aka the Bobwhite SAFE) was originally approved on February 21, 2008, with an initial acreage allocation of 6,250 acres.  Since then, the acreage allotment has been increased several times, with the latest coming near the end of 2012, adding an additional 7,400 acres and bringing the maximum enrollment in this practice to 25,050 acres.  This practice was available in all Missouri counties and allowed producers to transform marginal cropland into high quality habitat, which included seeding a quail friendly grass/forb mix, establishing woody cover, and annually planting a wildlife food plot on 10 to 20% of the contract acres. Some large requests for enrollments near the end of 2014 accelerated the exhaustion of available acres, probably due to the lack of a general CRP sign-up since the 45th Sign-up that ended in June of 2013 and the recent slippage in crop prices.  When originally announced, the national SAFE initiative was to provide 1-million-acres to states who submitted eligible project proposals.  FSA finished allocating those 1-million-acres to all states when Missouri received its final acreage allotment in 2012.  It is not known whether more acres will be allocated to the SAFE initiative, however, Missouri plans to request additional acres as soon as FSA announces the opportunity to do so.  There are still acres available in the Create and Protect Nesting Habitat for Missouri Grassland Birds Project (aka the Nesting Habitat Project), the At-Risk Species Missouri Sand Grassland Restoration Project (aka the Sand Prairie Project), and the Missouri Delta Stewardship Project.  The Nesting Habitat Project is available in a few select counties in north-central and southwest Missouri, while both the Sand Prairie and Delta Stewardship Projects are only available in southeast Missouri counties.  For a list of the counties included, take a look at FSA's SAFE Fact Sheet, or contact your nearest Private Land Conservationist (PLC) or Quail Forever Farm Bill Wildlife Biologist. Luckily as one door closes, another one opens.  FSA recently announced that center pivot corners would be eligible for enrollment in the CRP practice CP33 Habitat Buffers for Upland Birds beginning on January 26th, 2015.  CP33, known by many as "Quail Buffers," has been around since 2004.  This practice enrolls the edges of crop fields into wildlife friendly field borders that are anywhere from 30 to 120 feet wide.  The entirety of pivot corners have been allowed to be enrolled in the past, but at least 2 corners had to be enrolled and they had to be connected by a 30 foot buffer, meaning the producers usually had to give up some irrigated cropland.  The National Bobwhite Conservation Initiative (NBCI) has been working for many years to remove this impediment to enrollment in some of our most agriculturally intense landscapes.  With this change, individual pivot corners may now be enrolled without the connecting buffer.  Missouri currently has an allocation of 47,300 acres that can be enrolled in CP33. Don't miss any new posts! Follow the MOre Quail Blog on our RSS feed or get updates by email.

This article was syndicated from MOre Quail Blog Updates.

Are you using the right cut stump herbicide?

By: Steve Hoel, Private Land Conservationist, Missouri Department of Conservation

Disclaimer: I am not an expert in all herbicides. Always read and follow the safety and application guidelines from the herbicide manufacturer.

It’s the time of year that many of us grab the chainsaw and set off to complete some winter habitat work. On my property, winter chainsaw work includes killing trees that have begun to invade grassland areas. Along with the saw and personal protective equipment, I always take along a herbicide to prevent re-sprouting. One day, I followed my own advice and decided to fully read the herbicide label. To my surprise, according to the label, I was using the wrong herbicide for the species I wanted to kill.

It seems like the go-to cut stump herbicide is Tordon® RTU (5.4% Picloram and 20.9% 2,4-d). It comes in a convenient ready to use (RTU) formulation in a handy one quart bottle with an applicator tip. Pathway® is the same chemical combination as Tordon® RTU, but comes in a 2.5 gallon container. If you don’t mind refilling applicators, you can save a few dollars by buying Pathway®. Tordon® RTU and Pathway® should be applied to the outer cambium layer of the freshly cut stump to prevent re-sprouting.

Tordon® RTU/Pathway® are labeled to control the 21 species listed in the box below. Take note that two of the most common problem trees, Osage orange and honey locust, are not listed. I’m not saying that Tordon® RTU has not been used to kill these species, but it’s not labeled by the manufacturer to do the job.

Woody Plants Controlled by Tordon® RTU/Pathway®

  • ailanthus
  • alder
  • aspen
  • birch
  • cedar
  • cherry
  • dogwood
  • elm
  • firs
  • green ash
  • gum
  • hawthorn
  • hickory
  • hornbeam
  • maples
  • oaks
  • pecan
  • persimmon
  • serviceberry
  • sourwood
  • sweetbay


I have a real problem with invading Osage orange and honey locust, so I began to search herbicide labels to find a product that was tested to control both species. In addition, I wanted to find a versatile, inexpensive, and readily available herbicide that I could purchase without a pesticide applicator’s license. After considering all of the variables for my situation, I settled on Remedy® Ultra herbicide (60.45% Triclopyr). According to the label, Remedy® Ultra controls Osage orange, locust, and the other species listed in the chart below.

Woody Plants Controlled by Remedy® Ultra

  • alder
  • aspen
  • beech
  • birch
  • blackberry
  • blackbrush
  • cascara
  • ceanothus
  • cherry (1)
  • cottonwood
  • elderberry
  • elm (except winged elm)
  • granjeno
  • guajillo
  • guava (1)
  • hawthorn
  • huisache (suppression)
  • locust
  • maple [except bigleaf, vine (1)]
  • milkweed vine (1)
  • oaks
  • osage orange
  • pepper vine (1)
  • persimmon, eastern
  • poison ivy
  • poison oak
  • poplar
  • saltbush (silver myrtle) (1)
  • salt cedar (2)
  • sassafras
  • sumac
  • trumpet creeper (1)
  • twisted acacia
  • Virginia creeper (1)
  • wax myrtle (top growth)
  • wild roses
  • willow
  • willow primrose

(1) Basal or dormant stem applications only.

(2) Basal or cut stump applications only.


For cut-stump use, Remedy® Ultra needs to be mixed with a commercial basal oil or other oil-based carrier, such as diesel fuel, fuel oil, or kerosene. After mixing, the product should be applied to the outer cambium as well as the exposed stump and root collar area. This effort requires a bit more herbicide than using a product like Tordon® RTU, but it can be quickly accomplished using a pressurized hand sprayer like this one-liter hand sprayer made by Solo. Note that the basal oil or oil-based carriers can be hard on a sprayer’s seals and O-rings. Be sure to select a sprayer that can handle these products.

When mixed according to the label directions for cut-stump use, the final product will include around 15% of the active ingredient, Triclopyr. Conveniently, this same mixture can also be used for a basal bark application. This is a way to control small (<6″ diameter) individual woody plants by applying herbicide to the circumference of the lower 12-15″ of outer bark and root collar. This method is great for killing small individual woody plants without using a chainsaw.

If mixing herbicide is not your thing, you can use an herbicide called Pathfinder® II (13.6% Triclopyr). It is a ready to use product that is premixed with a basal oil. It is designed for both cut-stump and basal bark applications, just like the Remedy® Ultra mix above. One difference is that Pathfinder® II is actually labeled to control more species than Remedy® Ultra (see below).

Woody Plants Controlled by Pathfinder® II

  • ailanthus
  • alder, red
  • alder, speckled
  • ash, green
  • ash, white
  • aspen (1)
  • Australian pine
  • basswood
  • beech, American
  • birch, black
  • birch, gray
  • birch. paper
  • blackberry
  • blackgum
  • box elder
  • bois d’arc
  • briar, green
  • Brazilian pepper
  • cherry, black (1)
  • cherry, choke
  • cherry, pin
  • chinaberry
  • Chinese tallow tree
  • cottonwood
  • dogwood, flowering
  • dogwood, red-osier
  • elbow bush
  • elm, American
  • elm, winged (1)
  • gallberry
  • greenbriar
  • guava
  • hackberry
  • hawthorne
  • hazel
  • hedge
  • hercules club
  • hickory, mockernut
  • hickory, pignut
  • honeylocust
  • hornbeam (blue beach)
  • huisache
  • locust, black (1)
  • lotebush
  • madrone, Pacific
  • manzanita, greenleaf
  • maple, bigleaf (1)
  • maple, mountain
  • maple, red
  • maple, silver
  • maple, striped
  • maple, sugar
  • maple, vine
  • mesquite (1), (3)
  • mountain-laurel
  • oak, black (2)
  • oak, blackjack (2)
  • oak, chestnut
  • oak, post (2)
  • oak, red
  • oak, scarlet
  • oak, water
  • oak, white
  • olive, autumn
  • olive, Russian
  • osage orange
  • pecan
  • persimmon, common
  • pine, jack
  • pine, loblolly
  • pine, ponderosa
  • pine, red
  • pine, white
  • plum (Prunus spp.)
  • plum, sand
  • plum, wild
  • poison ivy
  • poison oak
  • poplar, balsam
  • privet (1)
  • red cedar, eastern
  • rose, multiflora
  • salt cedar (1)
  • sassafras (1)
  • sumac, smooth (1)
  • sumac, staghorn (1)
  • sweetgum
  • sycamore
  • tamarack
  • tanoak
  • walnut
  • wax myrtle
  • willow
  • yaupon
  • yellow poplar
  • yucca

(1) Some re-sprouting may occur.

(2) Not recommended for streamline basal treatment.

(3) Suppression only with streamline basal bark treatment.


One additional feature of Remedy® Ultra is the fact that I can use it in two other ways during the growing season. When mixed with water according to the label directions,itcan control woody plants with a foliar (leaf surface) herbicide application. I also use it to control sericea lespedeza and other broadleaf plants.

This brief article can only scratch the surface on herbicide selection and use. Each person’s situation is different, so you should consult your chemical supplier and the herbicide labels to select the correct product. I am not promoting one herbicide over another, but only describing my personal experience in selecting and using herbicides for my situation. You may find similar herbicides that will better suit your personal situation. No matter what herbicide you use, I encourage you to carefully read and follow herbicide labels.  CDMS’ Agro-chemical Database makes it easy to locate just about any herbicide label.


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