With the 75th anniversary of D-Day being tomorrow (June 6th), the marking of important events is on my mind. June 6, 1944, certainly ranks as one of the most important dates in history. The events of that day and those that followed to bring World War II to an end opened the doors to what Abraham Lincoln referred to as “the better angels of our nature” to prevail. They haven’t always, but the balance is still in their favor after 75 years.
In the movie “Saving Private Ryan,” Captain Miller (played by Tom Hanks), as he lay dying after a grueling battle, touched Private John Francis Ryan from Iowa (played by Matt Damon) on the shoulder lightly and said, “Earn this.” What might have seemed like nothing more than a touching moment in a movie to many meant so much more. That line was a statement to all of us to go earn the sacrifices made by so many so that we might have a free future.
So much of what we do may seem trivial and unimportant compared to the fighting of a World War, but it is the collective of all the positive things done since then that honor those who paid the ultimate sacrifice. All anyone owed them was to wake up every day and go do an honest day’s work and appreciate the opportunity.
Wildlife conservation is a luxury in the sense that it can only occur where societies successfully rise above subsistence and oppression. The conservation of wildlife species will never be as dramatic or noted as events such as World Wars. But our own existence may depend as much on the conservation of those species and their environments as it does on more immediate events. After all, their environment and ours is one and the same.
This year, Illinois will host the 25th meeting of the National Bobwhite Technical Committee (including its former days as the Southeast Quail Study Group). I don’t know what a soldier under fire in France in 1944 would have thought of our group (of course, at that time they were thinking of nothing but surviving and not letting their fellow soldiers down). I do know that no generation of people has embraced the outdoors more than those that survived World War II. Those men and women and their children (the Baby Boomers) took to our fields, streams, mountains, campgrounds, parks, and trails like none since. I think it is telling that the generation that perhaps sacrificed more than any other, found their solace, comfort, and joy in our natural environment. For as many as five decades, they provided the lion‘s share of the funding for state wildlife agencies via their gusto for purchasing hunting and fishing licenses, registering boats, and paying taxes on goods related to those activities. Taking that as evidence, I think they would feel that we earned the sacrifices they made. I don’t think they would consider our collective work as trivial.
As for the quail world, we have plenty to show for the last 25 years. Keep in mind, our work has to be measured in ways that account for the difficulty of the task compared to some other species. Encouraging the creation and maintenance of millions of acres of ephemeral habitat is a monumental undertaking. In many parts of their range, the tide of decline has been stemmed, or at least slowed dramatically. Populations are showing resurgence in many places like Texas, Kansas, Nebraska, Iowa, Missouri, Florida, Georgia, and Kentucky. Significant state recovery initiatives exist in multiple states within their range. Right here in Virginia, we see population surges in places where significant habitat work has occurred in a landscape still dominated by agriculture and forestry.
To define what I call the “quail world,” it consists of all the state agencies, federal partners, non-governmental organizations (both game species and non-game species related), research institutions, and others that collectively work on behalf of bobwhites and many species that rely on similar habitats. It might better be called the “early-successional species cooperative” – but that is a lot to say. A short list of major accomplishments of this collective would include: taking the Southeast Quail Study Group to the next level of a range-wide organization that includes 25 states under the National Bobwhite Technical Committee (NBTC); developing and staffing the “full-time infrastructure” of the NBTC in the National Bobwhite Conservation Initiative (NBCI); the establishment of the state agency director-led NBCI Management Board; the completion of a comprehensive analysis of the population and habitat status of the bobwhite’s range; conducting multiple successful Quail Symposiums; volumes of successful and illuminating quail research; the development of special USDA financial incentives programs, such as the FSA’s center-pivot irrigation corners CP-33 and NRCS’s Working Lands for Wildlife programs specific to bobwhites; the increase in the USDA’s Environmental Quality Incentives Program’s mandated wildlife funding from 5% to 10% of the budget; and the development of the NBCI-led Coordinated Implementation Program, which is the largest, most comprehensive (almost all 25 states now involved), most well-designed quail habitat and population response study ever undertaken. A national marketing firm-designed promotion campaign has also been planned to accompany these efforts.
I don’t want to be accused of painting an overly rosy picture, but it is important to understand a lot has been accomplished. Even so, this is not the time to ease up. Funding for the NBCI continues to remain problematic and insecure. Quail populations continue to decline in many areas. World-wide declines in insects, birds, and amphibians point to underlying problems that need attention at levels much higher than those of a single species, agency, or entity.
Much as those who had just fought their way through North Africa gathered themselves, took a deep breath and waded ashore in Normandy, it is time for those of us in the quail world to gather ourselves to take our battle to the next level.
I like to refer to the southeastern fox squirrel as the “eastern tree elk.” For people who have never seen one, their first experience with the east’s largest squirrel subspecies can be exhilarating. There’s just something about them that can’t be defined.
There are four subspecies of fox squirrel that inhabit Virginia. Over in the very farthest tip of southwest Virginia, there are a few of what are referred to as the mid-western subspecies of fox squirrel (Sciurus niger rufiventer), and they are very common in the mid-west. Moving a bit further east into the Ridge and Valley region of Virginia is our most common subspecies, known as the mountain fox squirrel (Sciurus niger vulpinus) to many. While well known in the mountains, this subspecies is moving further east. It is now quite common along the east slope of the Blue Ridge and is becoming more common in the western piedmont, with occurrences in central Virginia also increasing.
Traveling up to the eastern shore, you can find the Delmarva (Delaware, Maryland, Virginia) subspecies (Sciurus niger cinereus). While still very rare and on the state list of threatened species, due to successful reintroduction efforts the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service recently removed the Delmarva fox squirrel from the endangered species list. And back to my primary topic the southeastern fox squirrel (Sciurus niger niger), the last of the four subspecies occurs in the southeastern region of Virginia, and becomes more numerous in North Carolina’s coastal plan and further south through South Carolina, Georgia and into Florida. While locally abundant in some states, this subspecies is considered to be in decline, largely due to habitat loss. They only occur in Virginia in pockets where suitable habitat exists in enough quantity to support long-term populations, mostly in the counties east of I-95 and south of I-64 – our southeastern coastal plain.
Fox squirrels are perhaps the most variably colored mammals in North America. They occur in colors from oranges, to reds, to whites, blacks and all mixes of the above. They are about twice the size of the average gray squirrel. It is believed that the southeastern fox squirrel used to occur up into south central Virginia in counties like Nottoway, Amelia, Lunenburg, Dinwiddie, Brunswick and Mecklenburg. The southeastern subspecies tends to have more black coloration than other subspecies, often having a black belly and a lot of black on its face, but with white ears and nose markings. Very little is known about this squirrel in Virginia, however substantial studies have been conducted in North Carolina and further south. We are currently working in cooperation with multiple partners on a southeastern fox squirrel study in Virginia. There are two study sites, one consists of The Nature Conservancy’s Piney Grove Preserve combined with DGIF’s Big Woods Wildlife Management Area over in Sussex County. A long-term population of southeastern fox squirrels occurs on these areas, though we do not know how numerous they are. In an effort to better understand them, we erected 75 fox squirrel nesting boxes (15 at 5 sites) on these areas. Our hope is that we will be able to capture and place radio-telemetry collars on at least a few to gain a better understanding of how they use the habitat. The southeastern fox squirrel is known further south as a denizen of the open long-leaf “piney woods” (especially where prescribed fire is used routinely), but here in Virginia they have adapted to a mixture of mature, open loblolly pines, adjacent to hardwood drainages.
Our second study site is on Ft. Pickett Army Maneuver Training Center in south central Virginia. Ft. Pickett Environmental Program Funds are our primary funding source for the entire project. The research is being conducted in partnership with Virginia Tech and the Conservation Management Institute. At Ft. Pickett we also erected 75 fox squirrel nesting boxes. We do not know if any fox squirrels exist on Ft. Pickett, but we hope if they do we can document them via the nesting boxes and trail camera usage. Phase 2 of this project might also include some trapping and translocation of southeastern fox squirrels from North Carolina to Ft. Pickett. We continue to develop the project and work out the details.
What is interesting about southeastern fox squirrels is that their habitats are highly compatible with bobwhite quail, and also the endangered Red-cockaded Woodpecker, which is an important consideration of management at Piney Grove and Big Woods in Sussex County. All these species are adapted to open canopy pine forests where fire is frequently applied.
The Piney Grove – Big Woods complex (which includes Big Woods State Forest) also serves as Virginia‘s primary National Bobwhite Conservation Initiative Coordinated Implementation Quail Focal Area. This makes it part of the nation’s largest ever coordinated bobwhite quail study. I’ll also mention that deer, turkey and many other species benefit greatly from the management being done to help an endangered species. Add to this our recent partnership with the National Wild Turkey Federation on Big Woods WMA and State Forest, and I hope you can see the value of partnerships in ecosystem management. Our team at Big Woods was awarded a Superfund Project Grant from NWTF this spring that is allowing us to revamp multiple logging decks, turning them into brood fields for turkey poults and quail chicks, and also creating good pollinator habitat. Over time some of the native plant species we will use to re-seed the logging decks will spread into the surrounding areas increasing the native plant diversity.
And at Ft. Pickett, even though military training takes precedence over habitat management, wildlife and habitat are a top priority. The quality of the deer, turkey, squirrel and quail hunting found there is hard to beat. Their long-term use of prescribed fire as a management tool, combined with fires that result from military live fire training within impact zones, creates some of the most unique habitats in Virginia.
Both of these areas, the Piney Grove – Big Woods Complex and Ft. Pickett have several things in common. They are relatively large, contiguous blocks of habitat (10,000 acres and over 40, 000 acres, respectively), they actively manage timber with an emphasis on creating wildlife habitat, they routinely use prescribed fire, they welcome partnerships, and they are practicing ecosystem management, not single species management. These are just two examples of where synergy and partnership converge in Virginia and throughout the nation to benefit multiple public user groups. Whether you hunt, fish, hike, camp or watch wildlife, or “all the above,” wildlife benefits most when we work together to actively manage the contiguous blocks of public lands over which we have been given stewardship.
April might seem to be a strange favorite month for an upland bird hunter like me, but it is mine. I think more than anything else it represents the resurgence of life for me…in multiple ways. I have kept somewhat informal records of the dates of the first bobwhite whistles each spring for over 25 years, and uncannily at least for me, those dates fall somewhere between April 10th and 15th. Having survived the dreary, cold, wet, windy predator filled days of winter (not to mention a few bird dogs and shotguns) the hardier-than-one-might-imagine bobwhite puffs up his feathers, and blares out “I am still here and as strong as ever.” April is the epitome of optimism, and one cannot be a quail biologist without being such.
With each passing April day more and more evidence of life shows itself. A myriad of migrating songbirds fill the tree canopies with a chorus of songs at the very first hint of light in the morning sky. At night the spring frogs make up for the absence of song birds. And every pastel color in the pallet is on display, reminding us of what lies just under winter’s gloom. It is no doubt cliché that “life does spring eternal.” Even the air is palpable with new aromas that stir the senses (even though some of them may cause sneezes for many of us).
So, every April I am reminded that for species like bobwhite quail and others in decline, all is not lost. They have made a resurgence in many parts of the country, including parts of Virginia (though a modest one in our state). There has never been a time in history when there have been more quail than there are right now in parts of north Florida and south Georgia. And in parts of their western most range, numbers remain high. But they are also being seen again in good numbers in states like Missouri, where their focal area work clearly documents the effectiveness of large scale habitat restoration. The same can be said for parts of Iowa, Nebraska, Kentucky, and others.
In Virginia this past season hunters had one of the most successful years in over a decade (though with an admittedly small number of hunters reporting). One hunter found 101 unique coveys of quail, several others found in excess of 80 coveys, and the average number of coveys found per hunt was almost two. For the first time in many years the average amount of time it took to find a covey dropped below two hours. After decades of conservation work, workshops, education, and shouting from the hill tops – “It can be done” by legions of biologists (and foresters, and soil conservationists and multiple partners) — just maybe what was the monumental task of steering an enormous, continent-sized battleship is starting to get back on a right but different course. As in today’s world, quail and their associates cannot be reclaimed by the accidental demise of our environment. As humans continue to increase, only through combined, concerted, responsible, large scale habitat restoration can they continue to prosper. And this restoration must occur within a functioning system that produces adequate food and fiber for human survival. Lo and behold, it is happening … slowly, but surely minds are being changed, recognition is occurring, and more and more of us are doing things voluntarily to benefit more than ourselves.
Maybe there is no better time than on Easter Weekend to reflect on wildlife, the environment and our responsibility to them. It is within each of us to be able to make decisions that allow us to manage wisely the wonders we have all inherited.
Thomas V. Dailey, Ph.D.
NBCI Science Coordinator
The 2nd Bomb Cyclone in the Midwest and Great Plains is a reminder that snow and cold are likely triggering major mortality in bobwhites. Unlike the drama and immediacy of winter storms and flooding, the immediate negative effect on quail is not often obvious. In my Science blog last fall, “Secret Quail Locations,” I shared preliminary data indicating some Coordinated Implementation Program (CIP) projects in the Midwest had achieved very high quail abundance, a result of a combination of good habitat and mild winters and summers. In April, the Missouri Conservationist recognized a record-setting achievement over 40 years of quail measurements (https://mdc.mo.gov/conmag/2019-04/brief).
Severe Winter Weather
For decades, research findings have pointed to the short-term population-depressing effects of severe winter weather. In “Cyclicity in Northern Bobwhites: A Time-Analytic Review of the Evidence,” Thogmartin et al. observed bobwhite populations as “tumbling sharply in one year” (2002, freely available in NBCI’s National Quail Symposium, https://trace.tennessee.edu/nqsp/vol5/iss1/39/). The proximate cause of death is often predation, but the ultimate causes are environmental: lack of cover, increased foraging (and thus, increased exposure to predation), and malnourishment, making them easier to catch by predators.
Todd Bogenschutz, quail coordinator for the Iowa Department of Natural Resources (DNR), keeps track of >50 years of statewide bobwhite trends, with many instances of severe winter and subsequent population response. Todd and Iowa DNR have been reporting very high bobwhite abundance the past few years, including on the Ringgold and Shawtee Wildlife Management Area CIP projects in southwest Iowa. Todd predicts a decline in quail in fall 2019.
The Iowa August Roadside Survey (ARS) through 2018 shows that the percentage change per year in the quail count has been less than zero following winters with >25 inches of snow; the red dot is a prediction for the percent change this August, based on the 32 inches of snowfall through March. In other words, so many bobwhites will likely die that reproduction this summer will not return the population to the high level measured via the CIP on Ringgold and Shawtee in the fall of 2018, i.e., “tumbling sharply in one year.”
Coincidentally, Iowa DNR hosted a CIP workshop January 8-10, 2019, just prior to the onset of five continuous weeks of snow cover on Ringgold and Shawtee CIP focal areas. A major topic of the workshop was protective cover. Little did we know the remainder of the winter would provide an excellent test of CIP and protective cover.
CIP and the Three Little Pigs
The children’s tale The Three Little Pigs illustrates a key CIP habitat concept. Small critters require protection from the elements and their enemies that threaten to “huff and puff and blow your house down.” Only the Pigs’ brick house could withstand the wind and the wolf. Likewise, for bobwhites, the best-structured habitat—“protective cover” in CIP terminology—will reduce winter mortality.
CIP is designed around the best habitat, in this case to help quail survive inevitable winter bottlenecks in the snow/cold range. Key factors are availability of protective cover in the form of low-growing woody vegetation, and tall herbaceous vegetation with plenty of bare ground to provide easy foraging for high-energy seeds. Both are conducive to survival during winter, enabling bobwhites to maintain a relatively positive energy balance and avoid predation. Decades of research indicates protective cover is paramount in winter, from Texas to New Jersey. These concepts are explained in the NBCI technical website under “Training,” https://www.quailcount.org/monitoring/habitat.html. Click on “Habitat Characteristics” for a narrated slide show, videos, and a pop quiz.
What We Know So Far
CIPs in Iowa, the 2C and Bee Ridge CIPs in Missouri, and Nebraska’s Meridian CIP are measuring quail abundance annually in June and October, providing insight about the loss of quail due to winter conditions and subsequent recovery during the nesting season. CIP does not provide immunity to quail from effects of weather; however, we expect population dynamics are shifted upward—higher lows and higher highs.
CIP is a long-term commitment by partners to restore quail and provide huntable quail populations. CIP projects run for 10 years, and those hardest hit by the past winter still have until 2022-23 to test CIP’s year-round production and survival concepts. Stay tuned as findings from CIP are published, beginning with this fall’s 2019 NBCI Bobwhite Almanac
Ah, yes, I wish I could have lived back in those halcyon days of quail hunting when every day after school without end we found 12 coveys of quail before dinner, and Old Bell pointed four coveys within sight of the house. Of course, the stream banks were falling in, the rivers ran muddy most of the year because there were no trees left within a mile of them, swamps were drained out, dried up, sawed off and burned up for farming, our topsoil was mostly on its way down the major rivers where dredgers worked day and night to keep the channels open for boat commerce, and deer, bear, turkey and duck numbers were at all-time lows…I think you get my drift.
There were a lot of quail back in the early 1900s when many other species were in steep decline due to poor overall land management. Quail love weeds and bare dirt and they do not care what the land looks like with regards to long-term conservation. Like most wildlife species, quail can’t see beyond their survival of this particular day.
You do not have to go far even now to find evidence of poor soil conservation. I walk the pine timbered ridges of our own farm and see deep cuts, washes, and old erosion scars now covered with pines. Old relatives mist up talking of how many quail they found there back in the day. And doubtlessly they did. The old washes grew rank with pokeweed and briers, the openly tilled soil left fallow grew ragweed in abundance. And bare ground of the kind quail love – meaning that which is over-topped by weeds that produce seeds and insects but do little to hold soil in place — was abundant all over old farm fields. I suspect, perhaps, there were never as many quail in the east as there were in the first few decades that followed the Civil War. Old photos from that era show a land that had been abused for over a century.
During those same times large wildfires burned in areas of the upper mid-west through jack pine forests that had been mismanaged. The bobwhite quail, which for centuries had likely been most populous in places where lands tended to remain in good condition for quail without a lot of human interference, semi-arid lands like those found in west Texas, Kansas and Oklahoma – began to find new areas “opened up” to them by forest clearing and burning, and rudimentary rotational cropping systems. Quail in the east had likely existed for centuries at stable, but relatively low numbers compared to areas in the west. The eastern bobwhite was maintained by lightning struck fire, Native American use of fire, cropping and large grazing animals like woods bison and elk. Relatively suddenly, a quail population boom in the east followed the land abuse of European settlers. You may feel the word abuse is too strong. My ancestors were among them, and their actions were not out of bad intent, but more out of a lack of knowledge.
By the 1920s and 30s, and particularly in the 1940s following the “Dust Bowl Era,” our society began to realize the error of our ways. We began to view soil as a vital component of our future. Wetlands protections also began in earnest. Oddly enough, in the late 1940s, declines in species like bobwhite quail were notable enough that eastern state agencies like the Virginia Game Commission began concerted efforts at ”farm game restoration.” Virginia’s first program began in 1948 and a report was written in 1962 on the results. This was the beginning of the era when eastern quail no longer occurred by accident due to bad land management. It now took specific effort to produce quail.
However, compared to today, agriculture was still developing. Small farms still ruled our landscape, most of which grew grain crops like corn, wheat and milo, and the age of industrial farming was still a few decades away. Pine timber management was also still in its infancy compared to 2019. Old bird hunters talk about days when clear-cuts were large, often several hundred acres, and soil disturbance on timbered sites was high. Mechanical site preparation combined with prescribed burning had not been replaced by cleaner harvesting techniques and advanced herbicides. In those days most cut-overs had numerous windrows that had been created by dozing to clear the ground for pine planting. Those windrows quickly grew up with pokeweed, briers, ragweed and many other forbs. They offered cover and food. The dozed ground grew ragweed like the old abandoned crop fields of the Civil War Era. Low and behold, a second “quail boom” was seen in the east. But with it came new concerns about soil erosion and water quality.
By the early 1980s, modern forestry and agriculture were in full swing. Human population growth necessitated that we find ways to feed and house more people while using less land. This meant intensification in food and fiber production. These changes have largely been to the good of society (time will tell as we see world-wide insect and bird populations in decline now). But they have not helped the bobwhite quail or species like it. Timber clear-cuts still produce quail. I’d say if not for them, we’d have far fewer quail than we still have. And farms still provide some food and cover for quail. Today, neither farming nor forestry produce quail by accident to the extent they did 75 years ago. To engender a recovery in quail numbers takes active management for them. And to restore them on a large scale will require active management on a large scale. We do not live in an age when a “boom” recovery of bobwhites is likely to occur by accident (unless it would be one that may drastically reduce our own populations).
Is it all lost for bobwhites in the east? Hardly. We see recoveries in areas where the right combination of farming, timbering and conservation practices come together. It seems to me more and more landowners and farmers are choosing to do the right thing when it comes to not only water and soil quality, but also for wildlife. Field borders and conservation buffers help. Thinning and prescribed burning pine timbered tracts has enormous potential. It may not be a quail boom, but every acre that is managed specifically for quail and other wildlife is the future. Every acre is worth doing…I’d argue more worth doing now than at any time in history…as each acre contributes to a recovery that will no longer be by accident.