Shell’s Covert: ‘Beamerball’ & Bobwhites — A Quail Blog Tribute to Frank Beamer

Frank Beamer, who just retired after 29 years, became the Virginia Tech football coach the year I exited my all-expenses-paid, 4-year tour with the U.S. Army. In the Army one is often asked “Where are you from?” I became accustomed to saying in my mountain drawl at that time “Southwest Virginia.” To which many would say “You mean southern West Virginia?”

A back and forth would ensue and I’d say, “No, Virginia, near Blacksburg.” To which the response most often was “Blacksburg, where the heck (more dramatic words generally used by Army personnel not suitable for this blog) is that? To which I’d reply, “in Southwest Virginia.” And on and on. To say we were not well known is an understatement along the lines of saying this year’s election atmosphere is slightly abnormal.

Frank is a native southwest Virginian, one of whose goals must have included putting us on the map because that’s what he did, in addition to many other things. Mr. Beamer demonstrated every aspect of the word “character.” Humble to a fault, but every bit confident, Mr. Beamer showed the country that small town values and high school football loyalty and closeness could be successful in the “big leagues.”

For 29 years and through emotions ranging from a heartbreaking loss in a national championship game to the highs of beating a state rival routinely, Frank did us proud. Never gloating and never sulking he went about his business with determination and enthusiasm every day. He taught so many players valuable football lessons, but, more importantly, life lessons as well. Since this is a blog about quail, let’s take a look at how some of his lessons apply to quail management. Let’s play “Beamerball* with Bobwhites.”

1)      Make good use of the off-season: Recruitment is everything in football, and if you don’t win the recruiting battles, you won’t win much else.

Application to quail management: Recruitment of baby quail is the key to annual population recovery. If you don’t have lots of first and second year weedy fields, you won’t recruit many new quail, and you won’t find many come fall. For those of you who don’t have a team in the big game next Monday night, the off-season is now until about mid-March. And you recruit quail by conducting prescribed fire or rotational disking between now and then.

Burn or disk for bobwhite

Burn or disk for bobwhite

About 1/3 of your habitat should be in first or second year disturbed areas consisting of ragweed, beggar-weed, partridge pea and a few clumps of native grasses – what we call brood-rearing cover (which doubles as winter feeding cover). If you don’t find some bare dirt under a canopy of weeds on a substantial portion of your property, your quail management program will be in a downhill slide until you get your recruiting in order. The second part of the recruiting game for quail is nesting cover. Nesting cover is brood-rearing cover with a little more grass – a weedy field that has been allowed to grow a bit longer between burns or diskings. About how much? Well…about 33%, or one-third. Beginning to sound familiar, eh?

Typical Nesting Grass Density

Typical Nesting Grass Density

2)      A great defense is what wins the tough games: Well…what is there to be said here other than by hiring Bud Foster and his defensive genius, the “Lunch Pail Defense” was established as one of the best in college football.

Application to quail management: Without good “defensive cover” in the form of thickets, your quail won’t make it through the winter. This is the cover that gets them through the “tough games.” Think of a thicket like that football safety that intercepts a pass when the opposing team is in the red zone. About a third of your cover should consist of thickets of wild plum, indigo bush, sumac, hawthorn, blackberry, green brier, VA-70 or bi-color lespedeza, or some mix of these. Repeatedly, in many different parts of the bobwhite’s range studies show that quail don’t like to be more than 30 – 40 yards from thickets. The thickets don’t have to be huge, 30 by 50 feet is plenty in most cases, but they should be well distributed throughout the property.

And quail don’t need “umbrella brush.” They need thickets that have stem density at ground level.  Some shrubs tend to grow like an umbrella, with one stem at ground level that does not branch out until several feet above ground. This creates a tunnel at ground level that predators can maneuver through easily.

 

Wild plum provides the right kind of cover for bobwhites

Wild plum provides the right kind of cover for bobwhites

If you ever get a chance, compare a native clump of wild plum to a row or two of planted non-native Autumn Olive and you’ll see what I mean. You’ll have to get down on your hands and knees and get some dirt on your pants to take a look and truly understand this concept. When planting shrubs of any kind for quail, make sure and plant them close together but staggered, and avoid creating “tunnels of death” for bobwhites.

3)      Focus on the basics: From time to time there will be a flashy “new” college football program that finds a niche in piling up points and developing a playbook about five chapters too long. You’ll notice them for a while, then they’ll fall off the charts faster than a “one hit wonder” country singer. Flash is useless unless you have the basics down cold.

Application to quail management: You will see a lot of fancy seed mixes, new quail stocking techniques guaranteed to work, new brands of larger pen-raised quail (in Colonel Sander’s language – “a family fill-up” for a predator) with the promise of being more “hardy” and other such “snake oil.” It’s OK to try new things. Some supplementation with food plots, or seeding to increase low native plant diversity may be needed, and some use of released quail to supplement and encourage quail hunting is fine, but the backbone of wild quail recovery should be the habitat basics.

4)      Don’t overlook things that might at first seem unimportant: Frank Beamer’s brand of football came to be known as “Beamerball” in part because of his focus on special teams, something some programs may overlook at times. He realized that special teams are part of the basics. A blocked punt here, a snubbed kick there, a punt returned for a score…these things win close games.

Indigobush Hedgerow

Indigobush Hedgerow

Application to quail management: Be honest with yourself about all aspects of your management program. Have you done your special teams work? Did you spot spray those thickets where taller trees were beginning to take over? Did you renovate those thickets where fescue was creeping back in? Do you really have enough bare dirt under your field vegetation? Can you really do without that hedgerow out in the field?                                                                                                                                                                       

In a nutshell: Good quail defense equals great thicket cover, good quail offense equals lots of brood –rearing and nesting cover, and quail special teams equals paying attention to detail. I’ll end by simply saying “Thank you, Frank Beamer, for showing the whole country what a humble but confident and determined ‘mountain boy’ from Southwest Virginia can accomplish with enthusiasm, loyalty and dedication to teamwork.”

And for those of us from Southwest Virginia, thanks for saving us a lot time in having to explain that anymore.

*Beamerball

During Beamer’s tenure at Virginia Tech, putting points on the scoreboard became a full team effort with the offensive, defensive and special teams units. Often when the team scores one or more non-offensive touchdowns, the style of play is described as “Beamerball.” Since Beamer’s first season in 1987, a player at every position on the defensive unit has scored at least one touchdown, and 35 different players have scored touchdowns on Virginia Tech’s special teams.

–Wikipedia

 

For more information about Frank, visit these locations on the web:

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Frank_Beamer

http://www.hokiesports.com/staff/beamer.html

January 6, 2016

Shell’s Covert: ‘Tis the Season

In this modern era we live in I admit to not being able to keep up with communications. As small game project leader for VDGIF I get a lot of messages every day, dozens by e-mail  – some good and some bad. As an aside, though our communications methods may be quick, we need to all remember (me especially) there is a person on the other end of the note and a phone call, or meeting in person is always best.

FlushingQuail_Dog_Hunter_CROPPED_RESIZED  
   

A topic that has caused me to receive some “forceful” commentary lately is that of the quail season and bag limit. As many of you know, we (VDGIF) still allow quail hunting statewide with a bag limit of six per day. Many of you also know we have been working on a quail recovery initiative for many years now. We are doing that because across their range (in all 25 states of the National Bobwhite Conservation Initiative) quail continue to decline, markedly in some places. So why then do we still allow quail hunting?

“Geeze…you had to ask me that question again,” I may mumble to myself (because I struggle with the issue personally and it is not easy to answer). Every two years VDGIF takes public input on our game laws. (Essentially we always take public input, but this is officially for regulations).  A series of committees composed of agency staff considers each and every comment. This does not mean each one is acted on or becomes a change. It does mean that they are all taken seriously. These committees debate and eventually make staff recommendations to our Board of Directors. The Board ultimately decides, after considering input from all parties involved, what changes are made.

OK, back to quail. I have been with VDGIF for 19 years and for the last 7 years have been the small game co-project leader. This is the 4th regulations cycle that I will have overseen for small game. Our small game team will again debate the issue of the quail season and bag limit. Each time in the past we have concluded that changes would make no biological difference to quail populations. Let’s look at why before we discuss sociological reasons for changing or not.

To a large degree quail hunting pressure is self-regulating. Where quail populations are low, quail hunting effort is low to non-existent. Generally speaking, as you move from east to west in Virginia, the quail population declines. Our hunter surveys show that there are about 9,000 quail hunters in Virginia (down from a high of 143,000 in 1973), but this includes incidental quail hunters who may see quail while hunting other species. To the best of our ability to determine it there are fewer than 500 avid quail hunters left in our state, and most of them can be found in the East where quail populations still produce some good hunting (some hunters finding over 100 unique coveys in a season). Avid quail hunters tend to also be avid quail conservationists. This means that they do not shoot coveys down below eight quail, and they don’t hunt them until dark. They’ll quit early enough to allow the coveys to regroup for roosting. They, more than anyone else, recognize the plight of the bobwhite.

Quail are also what biologists call R-selected species. This means they live short lives, suffer high mortality annually and have the ability to recover quickly in suitable habitat. Most quail populations, even in an un-hunted environment, suffer 80% or greater mortality annually. It is generally accepted among quail biologists that a population can suffer 20% to 40% hunting mortality without long term negative population consequences. However, it has been shown that not all quail mortality is created equal. The closer to spring a quail lives, the greater its chances of producing little quail. Studies have shown that late winter mortality (February and beyond) has more of an effect on the population than earlier mortality. This is why Virginia closes our quail season at the end of January, while other states seasons remain open through February and into March in some cases.

It is agreed among wildlife professionals that hunting is not the cause of the bobwhite quail decline and eliminating hunting will not bring them back (and reducing bag limits would have no affect at all). If we look at ruffed grouse for example, the season was closed in Virginia east of I-95. This was done primarily because restocking efforts were attempted there that ultimately failed. Though the grouse season has been closed east of I-95 for decades, grouse have not recovered there. We also note populations of many non-hunted species that use similar habitats to bobwhites are declining, too. Birds likes grasshopper sparrows, Bachman’s sparrows, prairie warblers, field sparrows, along with numerous pollinating insects, are declining primarily because of habitat loss (other factors contribute, but not hunting).

We try to base our recommendations on science to the extent possible, but there are social aspects that factor into decisions – we are humans after all. One reason we have hesitated to close the quail season in parts of the state where populations are low is that we feared it would send the wrong message. By closing the season the general public may be led to think hunting is the cause of the decline. So why close a season when we know it will have no impact on the population at all and may send the wrong message? You hopefully can now see the decision is not as simple as you might have thought.

But what about sending the right message? Should we close portions of our season to demonstrate the dire straits quail are in throughout much of Virginia? Would closing the season finally get that message out? Should we consider closing or reducing the season in central Virginia, where pockets of good quail numbers remain, but where much of the area has low quail populations? Should we consider imposing a daily time cut-off like many western states do (many end all bird hunting at 4:00 p.m.)?

Our team will consider all these scenarios again in the coming months. I personally would like to think that bird hunters are special, of high ethics, and more regulations would do little to assuage the bobwhite’s plight. As a bird hunter you need to ask yourself, “Just because I can legally kill six quail, should I?” I also hope each of you, regardless of whether you agree or disagree with our logic or the results, keep in mind, we have the best intentions at heart and we do not take these things lightly.

Lastly, Merry Christmas to all of you.

Shell’s Covert: The Great October Quail Covey Count

We need your help.

Our team hopes you will join us on the first annual Virginia “Great October Quail Covey Count.” You can solicit your neighbors’ help, too. As the saying goes, “Tell me and I forget, involve me and I learn.” By mid-October, most quail coveys have formed after going through what biologists call the “fall shuffle.” Late summer and early fall is a period of great flux among quail. They move about a great deal, groups form, then break up, and re-form with new members, and mixing and matching is the name of the genetic diversity game. But by the cool days of mid-October, they start to settle into their winter units we all know and love – coveys. And it is during this time that quite a bit of fall “covey calling” occurs…as coveys settle into a range and let other coveys know their whereabouts. This makes it the perfect time to get an estimate of your population.

Tall Timbers Research Station, along with many partners, pioneered the method beginning in the late 1990s and it has grown in use since then. The National Bobwhite Conservation Initiative has adopted the fall covey count as one of several surveys they and member states are using to monitor quail for the NBCI’s Coordinated Implementation Program. (You can find out more about the method on the Tall Timbers website (http://talltimbers.org/how-many-bobwhite-coveys-are-there/ ). We hope you will spend some time on this site.)

 The method is very simple, but logistical complexity increases with property size. The larger your property, the more observers you will need, or the more mornings you will need to conduct point counts on your own. But don’t get bogged down in complexities. For our purposes this year we want to keep it simple. As you read through the method description on the TTRS website, you’ll come to a section that shows some crazy looking formulas – don’t sweat those, all we want you to do is count coveys and report the number heard per point to us. We will do the rest and we’ll give you an approximate assessment of your population. The main thing is, it is fun to go out on a crisp, frosty morning and “see what you hear.” About every time I go, something interesting happens.

All you really need to do is get to your listening post 45 minutes before sunrise and listen for calling quail coveys until sunrise. Studies have shown that most calling occurs between 18 and 22 minutes before sunrise, but it varies. Getting there a few minutes before peak insures coveys have time to settle down and you don’t miss any calling. Never heard a covey call? Many have not, but on the TTRS website there is a playable MP3 file. You can also visit the Cornell University Ornithology Lab website (http://www.allaboutbirds.org/guide/Northern_Bobwhite/sounds ) and listen to the “Hoyee-like” call.

Setting up your listening point, or points, is fairly simple. Most of us can hear a quail covey for about 500 yards, so if you have a small property, a few hundred acres or less, one or two points may be all you need. It is best to use an aerial photograph, or map of your property, along with your knowledge of the land to set up points. Try to minimize listening area overlap where possible.

 If you believe you have a low density of quail, it may also help to use a stimulator call. I use an old “boom box” with a tape of the covey call. If I do not hear coveys calling on their own by about 15 minutes before sunrise, I play the call loudly and listen for responses. Some quail hunters I know can make the call reliably with their own whistling. Hey, whatever works! If you have a high density of quail, one covey calling will stimulate the rest to call and stimulators are not necessary.

But this year, just go out and listen and have fun, don’t stress over details unless you really like details. We’ll make our survey period this year October 15th through 31st. If you have help you can do multiple points in one day, or if going it alone, do as many as are needed at different points during that time period. Report your results to me by a simple e-mail stating: date, county, number of acres covered, number of points surveyed, and number of quail coveys heard per point.

For example – you survey three points – you hear 1 covey at one point, none at another and 4 at the third point – That’s 5 coveys divided by 3 points, or 1.7 per point. If you have a large property and get help from your family or friends, tally up the results from all points surveyed by everyone. Or, to keep it simple, just send in the number of coveys heard and the number of points surveyed, we’ll figure out coveys per point.

Also, it is critical we get reports even if no coveys are heard. This is important. If you conduct a count and don’t hear any, send that report in, too, and don’t despair. Keep working on the habitat. We have an increasing number of cases where folks are doing the habitat work and quail are showing up. Remember, keep it simple, make it fun, be a part of Virginia’s first annual “Great October Quail Covey Count.” Send reports to: marc.puckett@dgif.virginia.gov.

Oct. 5, 2015

Shell’s Covert: A Great Group of People Virginia is Lucky to Have

I am trying to sit here and reflect back on the year in human terms. Trying to take stock and put into words so many intangible things that we do not report, so many things that are hard to put numbers on, and trying to figure out how I report on the human spirit.

You see we have a team of people that are self-motivated to do a great job. Our team of five private lands wildlife biologists routinely challenges themselves to learn more and improve our program. No one made anyone develop a Facebook page, they took that upon themselves. No one required them to re-work our quail web page, they saw the need and did it. No one made one of them try radio advertising as an outreach tool, but he did. No one forced them to become plant identification experts, or cost-share program gurus, it was simply in their DNA to strive to be better and to help each other along the way.

That is what I would call a team. And all we have done to help is foster an atmosphere that encourages initiative. We have tried to give them the tools and equipment they need to succeed. And we have tried not to stand in their way when ideas develop. We have encouraged each one of them to excel in the areas in which they wish to excel.

As time has passed, we have also started developing training opportunities that go beyond the basics for them. This year our quail team, along with several  Ft. Pickett natural

Team 9-2014 5 years plus_RESIZED  
   

resources staff, spent  nearly an entire day in the field with Dr. Theron Terhune – Game Bird Research Program Leader at Tall Timbers Research Station. Theron was nice enough to spend hours with us touring the habitat on Ft. Pickett and answering questions and sharing his knowledge. It is hard to put a price tag on that experience. Thanks, Theron!

We also spent a day with VDGIF’s long-time forester, Kent Burtner. Kent was kind enough to drive down from Verona on a very hot May afternoon and teach our team all about cruising timber. For the uninitiated, that does not mean driving a log with wheels and power steering. Cruising timber is how foresters estimate the value and volume of a timber stand. It is critical to properly marketing a timber tract. Why is this important to our quail team? Most landowners we work with have timber of some kind and our team needs to be able to “talk the talk and walk the walk.” It is part of credibility and being able to relate to landowners. If you show up on a property and you don’t know what “board feet” is, or how trees per acre relates to basal area, that landowner may look at you and wonder if you really know anything about quail, either.

The team also spent two days on a specially arranged trip to the University of Tennessee, Knoxville to visit with Dr. Pat Keyser, and his team at the Center for Native Grasslands Management. Dr. Keyser has done a ton of work with native grasses on working landscapes. How can we integrate cattle and quail? His research is showing that moderate levels of cattle grazing, even during the primary nesting season, actually improves native grass stands for quail and some songbirds. Left to their own devices, many native grass stands become too thick for bobwhites. What better way to manage them than a method that puts pounds on steers at the same time? Our team is out front on issues like these.

We’ve also stepped up to lead by example at the national level. Seven of our team members participated in the 21st National Bobwhite Technical Committee meeting in Galloway, New Jersey this August. Participated is the key word because we never simply “attend.” For many years Virginia has held leadership positions on the steering committee of NBTC. That continues. This year one of our team members stepped up to become vice-chair of the Outreach Subcommittee (to become chair in two years), and another now serves as chair of the Research Subcommittee and continues to play a key role in the implementation of NBCI’s Coordinated Focal Area Program. I have one more year as past-chair and that will wrap up a six-year term for me that began in 2010. All our team members play active roles on NBTC committees. And team member Bob Glennon was presented the NBCI National Firebird Conservation Award for Virginia this year for his never-ending energy in teaching and mentoring us all.

Where am I going with all this? Not much further. I hope the point is well taken. You can’t compare Virginia’s habitat potential to states like Texas, Georgia, or Florida. That’d be like trying to compare taste between a Georgia Peach and a Virginia Honey Crisp apple. Virginia is Virginia and we are doing our best and always striving to improve. We are proud of our team and of what we have done.

 

September 14, 2015

Shell’s Covert: Quail in Jersey? You Gotta Be Kiddin’ Me!

We just returned from the National Bobwhite Technical Committee meeting in Galloway, New Jersey (Thanks Andrew, Jimmy and Joe!!). No, that’s not a mistake. New Jersey.

I learned a lot about the Garden State on our visit. Some facts that might surprise you … New Jersey is one of the most wildlife and habitat diverse states in the lower 48. Habitats there range from coastal plains, wetlands and peat bogs (they are huge producer of cranberries), to upland pine “barrens” and hardwood covered mountains.  Cape May New Jersey is known as one of the east coast’s bird watching hotspots. New Jersey also has the densest human and black bear populations in the country and those two ingredients often don’t mix well. And one other thing, in spite of the New Jersey clichés brought on by TV shows The Sopranos and Jersey Shore, you can still find remote areas where quail may thrive again.

This brings me to the efforts ongoing in New Jersey, and it also provides a chance to consider “context” as it relates to quail recovery. We’ve all listened to politicians or TV stars bemoan the misuse of quotes attributed to them. They state, “The words were taken completely out of context.” And we all understand what that means. Clipping a few words out of a three-page statement and using them as an independent quote can relay a totally different meaning than if the words were read within the complete statement.

Simple enough, right? A concept harder for many to grasp is how the landscape context relates to a particular parcel of land’s ability to sustain a quail population.

For example, you own 100 acres of land that you plan to manage expertly for the bobwhite. Your results will vary depending on the landscape context within which your acreage lies. Having 100 acres surrounded by a mixture of row crop farmland, active timber management sites and dozens of other conservation projects suggest that you will have a high degree of success in your quail management.

Those same acres sitting as an island in a sea of mature hardwood forest and fescue pasture will not net you the same return.

Does this mean you should give up in those settings? Not if you are willing to work with neighbors and build landowner cooperatives to package acres into what we have termed a quail quilt, and what the National Bobwhite Conservation Initiative deems a focal area.

The NBCI’s Coordinated Implementation Program is designed to allow multiple states to build focal areas and document success on a wide scale. The basic focal area unit is a 10-square-mile area (6,000 acres approximately) and within that area 25% of the landscape should be useable by bobwhites (1,500 acres). These numbers were derived after much research and debate, and they should be encouraging to all landowners, because with good local leadership you can work to build your own bobwhite conservation area.

New Jersey has one such area under development now. A large corporate landowner (a cranberry producer) set aside 17,000 acres of their lands in central New Jersey and has created quality bobwhite habitat by intensive pine thinning and burning. The landowner is also working with New Jersey Audubon, the New Jersey Division of Wildlife and Tall Timbers Research Station, which is providing habitat assessment expertise as well as trapped and transferred wild bobwhites. That’s right, in the area under study, no remaining wild quail exists to repopulate the area, hence the introduction of wild bobwhites from north Florida.

We are considering developing a similar program in Virginia for landowners in areas where quail have been largely extirpated. Where local leaders can build effective cooperatives and create habitat of sufficient quality and scale, we will consider bringing in trapped and transferred wild bobwhites. The program is under development and requirements will be stringent, as they have been in other states like Georgia and South Carolina. But perhaps this will be the impetus needed to encourage landowners in areas without bobwhites to build the quail quilts needed to developed source quail populations in their areas.

It will take us year or two to work out the details and get the necessary infrastructure in place. The rest is up to you, the private landowner. In Georgia, after nine years of efforts, six properties have been successful and there are nine other properties in six states with projects under development. We’d like to add Virginia to that list.

Last note – we want to congratulate Bob Glennon, one of our five private lands wildlife biologists for being presented the NBCI’s National Fire Bird Conservation  Award for Virginia this year. Bob is a retired NRCS program manager with a lifetime of conservation work behind him. He shows no signs of slowing down and he was presented the award for his mentorship and patient teaching of our team. His knowledge of plants is unparalleled. Great work Bob!

Shell’s Covert: Can’t See the Quail for the Feathers?

DSCF2419_feathers close up  
   

 

Recently, a small group of gamebird oriented non-governmental organizations, along with several Game and Inland Fisheries staff, met on a Saturday afternoon in Farmville. The meeting stemmed from a conversation between me and a Ruffed Grouse Society member all the way back at our national quail meeting in Roanoke in summer 2013.

The entire theme of that meeting was overlap – in mission, in habitat needs, in outreach, in communication, in audience, etc. between various conservation entities desiring more early-successional habitats. Early-successional habitat equals thickets, weeds, wild flowers, brush, native grasses and young forests. Our hope was that the many entities recognizing the need for such habitats could work together towards a unified, simple, direct and effective message promoting and encouraging cooperative efforts to create what we all want – more habitat to support the respective critters we want to see more of.

Take note of the National Cattlemen’s Beef Association, or the National Soybean Checkoff – both national advertising campaigns that don’t focus on the type of cow, or soybean, but rather on the common needs of them all. Our wildlife community lags behind many other entities in effective marketing. One reason is lack of funds. But that is not the only reason. I fear all too often we are guilty of not being able to see the quail for all the feathers, which is a weak attempt at humor and a re-statement of the proverbial “can’t see the forest for the trees.”

If you have read this blog over the years (yes, going on 5 years now) you have noticed that though it is on a quail website, and I am a quail oriented biologist, many of my posts have not been about quail. First, even as much as I love quail, I can’t write about them exclusively. But more importantly, I long ago recognized the importance of partnering and collaborative efforts. I also believe that as a community we tend to be small when divided into respective interests and it will only be through unified messaging that we will be able to affect the types of attitude changes necessary to bring about landscape level habitat recovery.

Many years ago while working as a private lands biologist with DGIF’s quail program, I had a couple of years of experience under my belt promoting quail habitat. One day while in Halifax County around lunchtime I developed a craving for country cooking. I stopped at Ernie’s Restaurant, an iconic mecca of deep fried southern food at the time. Upon exiting the buffet line I spied two Natural Resource Conservation Service employees sitting at a table. They spotted me and invited me to sit down and eat with them. Most of us eat on the road from a bag, but every now and then it is nice to actually sit down, eat and enjoy a conversation.

Our talk gravitated towards quail, and I expressed my frustrations in not understanding why more landowners were not interested in creating quail habitat. Mr. Eugene Morris, NRCS District Conservationist at the time cleared his throat in preparation to speak. Eugene was and is a man not prone to wasting words or beating around the proverbial bush. Mr. Morris stated in the eloquent Southside accent I have come to love (notwithstanding my mountain roots) “Marc, I hate to hit you in the forehead with a hammer, but most people don’t wake up in the morning thinking about wildlife, much less quail.”

I guess I must have looked a bit like a quail in the “headlights” of a fox, as I stopped chewing my chicken for a few seconds.  It took that message a few years to sink in. As devoted conservationists we each like to believe that there are masses of humanity out there longing to help our species if only they had the information and funding available to them. But the truth is when you divide us all up into our respective favorites – that is just not the case. There simply are not enough grouse, woodcock, quail, golden-winged warbler, honey bee, monarch, and regal-fritillary butterfly people in any one category to move the needle. That is my belief. You may disagree. I believe deeply that until we figure out how to unite better in our message and marketing, we’ll continue to fail divided. The “masses” out there tend to understand the value of mature forests. They are becoming better at understanding the value of wetlands. They lag far, far behind in coming to value what many still see as unsightly cut-overs, or brush in need of mowing.

The Northeast Association of Fish and Wildlife Agencies (of which VDGIF is a part), in conjunction with the Ruffed Grouse Society, the Wildlife Management Institute, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Cornell University, the Nature Conservancy, Woodcock Unlimited, UP Wildlife Habitat Fund, and the Albany Pine Bush Preserve developed the Young Forest Initiative (I may not have them all listed, my apologies – as the YFI varies by region). This initiative is the best I have seen so far in terms of a united message about the value of young forests.

I hope we’ll take this concept a step further – is it time for a Young Habitats Initiative? Y-HI? As lovers of early-successional habitats, one thing we continue to struggle with is what to call our habitats that might resonate with more people. What I struggle with is how to connect the dots between weedy fields and continued human existence on this planet. I believe those connections exist, but most days, even for me, the next vet bill, or my daughter’s school tuition takes precedence.

We’ll keep plugging – one thing I learned in various leadership training events, more than charisma, more than flash, more than raw ability, more than being able to speak eloquently, there is no substitute for long-term, dogged determination.

Shell’s Covert: A Tribute to ‘Old Number 271’

I won’t tell you who Old Number 271 is, other than that he is still out there and a finer gentleman you will never meet. His number, 271, was assigned as he became one of our very first quail hunter cooperators back in the late 1970s. And he dedicated large portions of his life working on behalf of quail and quail hunters throughout our state. Yesterday I noticed one of my quail cooperator envelopes had come in abnormally late. I could tell no wings were in it, which is not uncommon now, but I opened it anyway because sometimes I get a letter (and not always with kind words). The letter was dated May 15, 2015 and this is it verbatim:

Dear Marc,

It’s a rainy day and I’m trying to use it to catch up on things. I’m going through stuff that’s been piling up on my desk, such as the envelope I’m just now returning. The wing survey form that was enclosed is not returning nor has it been needed for several years.

I guess it’s time for old number 271 to be retired. I thought you might want to purge your records. I think 271 outlasted all prior numbers by several years. I guess I lasted so long because hunting quail was just too much fun to give up just because their numbers had dropped off a little from when I signed on in 1977.

While a little sad to think I may not be hunting quail again, I had some wonderful years in the 70s and 80s, when I didn’t kill a lot of birds but certainly found plenty to shoot at. Lots of memories to enjoy.  Lots of good dogs. Not perfect but good.

And, by my profound interest in quail, lots of opportunity came my way aside from hunting. Meeting and working with like-minded individuals. The chance to preach occasionally on behalf of bobwhites and their unique needs. I owe that little bird a lot and have for a long time.

Best success to you in your determined and ever continuing efforts.

Old Number 271

Well…I sat and reflected on this note for quite a while. I have been personally involved in quail recovery since I started reading the quail literature back in 1992 … 15 years after Old Number 271 became a quail wing cooperator for VDGIF. I count myself lucky in having the opportunity to work with him for several years before he retired. I learned a lot about quail from Old Number 271, but more than anything else I learned how much a person can love these birds…just for the splendid creatures they are.

A couple things you will not notice in Old Number 271’s letter: 1) there is no bitterness, or lamenting about why we can’t seem to reverse this quail decline, 2) no quitting either, in the belief that they can come back…”Best success to you in your determined and ever continuing efforts.”

I wrote back to 271 in an e-mail. I admit to not having many words  I thought might matter, but just wanted to say thanks. I also wrote in an effort to encourage myself … as I have seen many venerable old bird hunters fade away like the mist over a trout stream on an early May morning. I think many of us suffer from years of “winning some battles but losing the war.” And those few that age does not overtake, illness does.

Old 271’s letter made me think about all the people like him who have done all they can do for the bobwhite. I asked in the note, “I wonder how bad things would be now if no one had ever done anything for them?”

And I wondered to myself where we’d be without the 1985 Farm Bill which at long last brought the word “wildlife” into the farm conservation language.

And the subsequent 1996 Farm Bill that made wildlife an equal partner with soil and water conservation in USDA programs.

And the advent of the Southeast Quail Study Group in 1995 (now the 25 state National Bobwhite Technical Committee), and the National Bobwhite Conservation Initiative (NBCI) and all the non-governmental organizations like Quail Forever, the Quail and Upland Wildlife Federation, The Quail Coalition, the National Wild Turkey Federation, now involved in quail recovery and more.

And I wondered about where we’d be without all the thousands of research hours and millions of dollars spent on behalf of bobwhites by so many storied quail research entities. I could go on, but I reckon my message to myself and any listening is that some may think we have not worked hard for quail, that we have not tried everything we could, but all those things did not happen by accident. Had none of us ever done anything, had there been no Old Number 271s, no one to care, we’d be far worse off today.

I am encouraged by the many exciting things I see happening not just for quail, but for pollinators, songbirds and habitats themselves. Old Number 271 carried the torch, and I believe there is a new generation coming along to keep it lit until its light falls on the bobwhite’s recovery. Those carrying the torch may not be cut from the exact cloth of Old Number 271, but they are right- minded conservationists. Lastly, thanks to Old Number 271 and all those like him who have steadfastly refused to give up on quail.

Shell’s Covert: “The Butterfly that saved the bee that saved the bobwhite?”

My daughter and I were out in our yard last week playing with our dogs and enjoying the sunny afternoon. I spotted a tiger swallowtail perched on our lilac bush nectaring. Grace asked, “Can I try to touch it?” I replied “Well…it probably won’t hold still long enough, but you can try. You have to be very careful as the pretty colors are actually scales that rub off easily.” She approached softly and slowly raised her hand with one finger out and touched the butterfly…and it just sat there nectaring without regard. It must have known somehow she was a kid who meant no harm. It eventually flew off unfazed. I did not have a camera. I hope that memory lasts a long time for both of us.

That butterfly captured her imagination in a way most other animals can’t. Its coloration, approachability, beauty and charisma were all right there at her fingertips. I have struggled for two decades trying to find out what it takes to create enough spark and interest in early-succession habitat – thickets, weeds, wildflowers and native grasses – to have a habitat renaissance catch fire and burn like a rank field of broom straw in March (and then burn long like a bag of charcoal).                                                                                     

 
   

 

This brings me to the story of the Monarch butterfly. A story of more fascination I challenge any of the best fiction writers to top. At first glance they appear to be delicate sky jewels, flitting about rapidly if we are lucky enough to see one. An investigation into their life cycle will reveal an organism that is anything but delicate. I urge you to do a search of your own on their life cycle. One fascinating aspect of Monarch ecology is their migration to wintering grounds, in some cases exceeding 3,000 miles.That alone would be drama enough for most of us. Imagine trying to travel that distance through rainstorms, high winds, and other natural conflagrations – it is hard enough in a car, much less in the tiny package we call a Monarch. But this is only one part of their amazing life. You see, it is the fourth generation, typically, that does the fall migration back to Mexico, California and other wintering areas. Those that make the fall trip and successfully overwinter, then take flight in spring heading north into the vastness of Texas and other areas. That part is not so hard to understand. They flew down that way in fall and now they fly back in spring. But they must continue north and continue to breed because those that arrive and breed first, their offspring are not the ones that return to overwinter. It takes several more generations to insure the last one has the longevity to return to Mexico, overwinter and then fly north and breed the following spring.

My mind had to rest on that thought for some time before I could truly grasp its meaning. In terms of salmon, most of us know they are spawned in the headwaters of cold streams. They leave those streams and go out into the ocean for sometimes a few years, then return to their headwaters to spawn themselves. A striking journey in its own right, it still only spans one generation. The same generation that left the stream came back. The Monarch life cycle spans four generations. How does that last generation know to return to Mexico? How do they know how to get there? And how do they then know to return north in spring? I have to think more is at work than pure genetics.

As we know, unfortunately their populations have declined steeply in the last few decades; as have many other pollinating insects, most notably many of our native bees. With regards to Monarchs, declines in milkweed (asclepias sp.) plants have contributed greatly to this crash. Monarchs have another interesting aspect in their ecology – they lay their eggs on milkweed because their larvae after hatching must feed on milkweed to store energy enough to develop into pupae which is the chrysalis stage of their four stage true metamorphosis – egg, larvae, pupae, and adult. And while milkweed is the main theme of the story the public has gotten, there is much more to Monarch habitat. It turns out that native bees, butterflies and bobwhites share one thing in common … many of them need diverse early-succession habitat to survive. Many of the same things we prescribe for creating and maintaining bobwhite cover like prescribed burning and rotational disking, also provide for an enormous number of pollinating insects.These critters need flowering plants available for nectar throughout the entire warm season.

Our DGIF staff has done quite a bit of prescribed burning this spring on some of our wildlife management areas. Over the last month I have spent a great deal of time getting photographs of some of these burned areas. It is amazing how rapidly the vegetation greens up after prescribed fire. Two weeks ago, while photographing in an old field we’d burned off to rejuvenate it, I saw two pairs of zebra swallowtails, heard at least four different gobblers thundering, heard one quail covey giving their morning covey call, and saw too many types of songbirds to name.

What does it takes to ignite enough interest in these habitats to make a difference? Maybe the Monarch is the butterfly that will save the bee that might save the bobwhite?

Thoughts?

May 4, 2015

Shell’s Covert: Par for the Quail Course

I used to golf. Trouble is, I love the game but hate crowds, especially on weekends when I am trying to recreate. Thus many years ago I gave up the gaudy pants, fancy shoes and expensive sticks, for…well…gaudy dry flies, fancy waders and other expensive sticks. Back a few years ago a development entity locally was building a new golf course right here in the heart of central Virginia. I passed the entrance to this new promised-land for iron wielding, golf cart racing, Bubba Watson “wannabes” daily on my way to work. It was all the talk of the local and slightly intoxicated “19th hole” crowd.

Shortly after the grand opening, I began getting phone calls, several every week about all the bobwhite quail that were being seen and heard around the new links. I had lived here long enough for people to actually believe there is such a thing as a quail biologist, and not only that, to have made enough of them aware of the plight of these special birds that they knew I’d appreciate any stories of quail success. They were all amazed that quail were attracted to golf courses. After all, I had told them repeatedly how quail needed rough areas, weeds, thickets, wildflowers and brambles and basically how quail hated “clean.” Many went on to describe how great the new course was but lamented, “Man, stay out of the rough though, I ripped a new pair of tweeds to shreds going after a lost ball last weekend.” Or, “This new course is like playing those old Scottish links, the rough is unreal.”

Generally a bit slow on the uptake, even I was quick to realize what was afoot around the new green ribbons of golfing glory. And sadly just as quick to realize how short-lived this new quail kingdom would be. I knew it would not be long until the regulars, who golfed here and not on the PGA tour for a reason, would grow tired of losing expensive golf balls in that rough. I don’t see how anyone without a sponsor can afford to play golf. And speaking of sponsors, I knew it also would not be long until those paying for signage around the links would demand that the unsightly weedy mess be cleaned up – as if God himself had no clue what kinds of plants should inhabit earth.

One day after work I took a drive down around the place. As you might imagine, when building a golf course from scratch, it takes quite a bit of heavy equipment. Dirt piles overgrown with ragweed abounded (some topped with clay covered golf balls). Brier thickets covered all the scarred areas, and broomstraw covered what had previously been fescue pasture. In short, quite inadvertently, and right here in the 21st century, a quail playground was created in a most unlikely place. I never got around to calculating by GIS exactly how many acres of quail cover had been accidentally established, but I suspect it was less than 10% of the total landscape encompassed by the fairways. You see, arrangement and distribution of cover has almost as much to do with quail habitat as does total acreage.

Within a year or two those calls stopped coming in. Upon driving by now, all that remains of that beautiful native cover are a few clumps of broomstraw poking up through the fescue, about as effective as a few hairs sticking up on a bald man’s scalp (Bald is Bold, Baby – I’m bald, I can joke about it). Occasionally I get a call that goes like this, “Man, there were quail out here a couple years ago like crazy, I almost hit one with a 5-wood out on number 6 (I did not know how to yell Foooouuouuuuurrrrr! In quail-ease), I don’t know what happened to them.” And so it goes – ah yes, maybe it’s predators, or some disease, or a parasite?

Take home lessons – quail can and do re-populate an area quickly when there is enough cover in the right distribution as long as there is seed stock (a few other quail) within a few miles. It is not overly difficult to create quail cover, but keeping it around is harder. There are challenges such as “How do we create good quail cover without increasing soil erosion, or decreasing water quality?” We can answer those kinds of questions, but the one I have the hardest time with is “How do we get enough people to care about quail and quail cover to make a difference?” When we live in a country where barely 40% of eligible voters make an effort to be involved, there are bigger issues at play.

Next month’s post: “The butterfly that saved the bee that saved the bobwhite.”

 

March 30, 2015

Shell’s Covert: Rediscovering Discovery

I was talking with a colleague this morning discussing youth hunter recruitment and how difficult it is given all the things kids and their parents are now involved in. Just to get a commitment for a one day hunt, or even part of a day, is difficult. Where does that hunting spark come from? What makes a kid burn with desire to go afield? I know when I was a kid some of my earliest memories were of my dad returning home with game. I can still vividly picture a big greenhead mallard he pressed into the window of our front door, when I was four or five, as I gazed at it in awe. But it was more than that, and exactly what I am not sure.

Regardless whether your kid ever hunts or fishes, I hope you somehow manage to kindle their interest in the outdoors. Without that basic curiosity towards nature, there is little likelihood a child will ever grow into a conservationist. I hope you help your kid find a way to rediscover discovery. You just might have fun yourself.

My daughter and I have worked together on her school science project now for the past 3 years. As we scanned the internet looking at page after page of age appropriate science projects for this year’s assignment, nothing really spoke to us. Last year we did the “floating egg” experiment, where we tested the buoyancy of water. As we added salt, low-and-behold the egg that sank in freshwater now floated. Her thoughts may have been, “OK Dad, my choices for fun are, play cool video games, or watch an egg float in water.” One of the biggest challenges any parent faces is how to make things productive, but also fun.

I gave up on the internet projects this year. I put my own meager brain to use. What might be easy, involve nature andMarch Image_resized be fun? “What do you think about testing to see which seeds in a bag of store bought bird food the birds actually prefer?” I asked Grace.  She thought it was “cool.” Most store bought bird seed is comprised of millet, milo, sunflower and cracked corn. Some contain wheat, barley, or a few other seeds, but your standard bag of bird seed is not a sack of gourmet bird food.

Daddy’s bright idea was to get a sifter and separate the seeds…which did not work at all, and we had a ton of fun laughing at my stupidity. I ended up buying the four basic seed types separately. We then had a great time building a 4-chambered tray to put the different seeds in. Nothing hi-tech, we use plywood and some 1’ x 2” stripping pine to make our testing device.

My daughter, wife and daughter’s science teacher all had worries about “how will you know whether squirrels ate the seed? How will you control for seed being blown out by wind? Will you weigh the seed each morning and evening, etc.?” I explained to them all – this is an observational experiment. It will require Grace to sit and watch the birds feed during peak feeding times and record what seed they choose. Thus Daddy is not as stupid as many would like to believe (though my life does have a Forrest Gump quality).

I actively involved my daughter in observing birds. At the same time I eliminated all the potential biases associated with a non-observational experiment. If a squirrel comes along, we’ll shoo him away. And we won’t worry about times, if Grace watches for 10, 20 or 30 minutes over several days – it does not matter because in the end we will have the total number of each variety of seed chosen by type of bird, and collectively.

Some of our results: sunflower was chosen 286 times, millet 26 times, milo 23 times and cracked corn 27 times. The most common choosers of sunflower were the tufted titmouse and the chickadee. We can unequivocally say tufted titmice and chickadees prefer sunflower. Juncos fed on the ground almost exclusively and visited the tray only 2 or 3 times. Doves also fed exclusively on the ground. Cardinals preferred to feed from our bird feeder which was close by, but began to visit the tray once they got used to it. The towhees were the last to show up. They only began using the feed we put out after it snowed. We also found that Cardinals eat sunflower seed by taking the entire seed inside their bill, then spitting out the hulls, but the chickadees and titmice have to grasp the sunflower with their feet and peck out the seed inside. Thus cardinals can eat sunflower a lot faster than other birds. Interesting also was that blue jays, while a large bird, do not have a beak adapted to take in the seed like a cardinal. They, too, had to hold the sunflower seeds and peck them open. The chickadees would pick the seed up and fly to a nearby tree to eat it. The titmice would as often as not, simply peck it open right on the edge of the tray – all this from one simple experiment.

Seed for further study…we wondered how far away birds would come to a feeder? We observed them flying in from a distance of well over a hundred yards. Maybe this study has been done? Regardless, I hope I sparked in my daughter the seeds of a conservationist. Today, songbirds, tomorrow, who knows? But it has to start somewhere.